How Many Generation of Computer

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The impact of computers on human civilization has been significant, completely revolutionizing the way we live, work and communicate. The history of computing spans multiple generations, each marked by distinct technological advancements that have shaped the modern digital landscape. From the bulky, vacuum tube powered machines of the early 20th century to today’s sleek and high speed devices, the journey of computer development has truly showcased human ingenuity and innovation.

Generation of Computer : 

A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information or data. It is capable of storing, retrieving and processing data efficiently. In today’s world, computers serve various purposes such as document typing, email communication, gaming entertainment and web browsing.
It also has the ability to edit or create spreadsheets, presentations and even videos. However, the development of this intricate system began approximately in 1940 with the First Generation of computers and has been evolving ever since.
Computers have undergone significant advancements throughout the years and their history is often categorized into different generations based on the technology they employed. Here, we will explore the five generations of computers;
First Generation; The initial computers utilized vacuum tubes for processing and magnetic drums for storage. They were bulky and expensive.
In the computers of the 1940s to 1950s era, vacuum tubes were the primary electronic components used.
The main units for storing memory were magnetic tapes and magnetic drums.
Machine language served as the programming language during that time.
These computers were quite large, occupying entire rooms and their processing speed was relatively slow.
Paper tape and punched cards were the only input/output devices available.
Around 100 different vacuum tubes were utilized in constructing these computers.
Notable examples include UNIVAC1, ENIAC, IBM 701, IBM 650, etc.
Second Generation (1950s 1960s); The second generation of computers replaced vacuum tubes with transistors, resulting in smaller, faster and more reliable machines. Additionally, magnetic core memory was introduced, offering improved speed and reliability compared to magnetic drums.
Moving on to the second generation of computers (the 1950s 1960s),
transistors became the main electronic component used.
Magnetic tape or disk and magnetic core served as the primary memory storage units.
Assembly language was adopted as the programming language.
Compared to the first generation, these computers were smaller in size,
consumed less power and generated less heat.
There was an improvement in processing speed as well.
The input/output devices remained as magnetic tape and punched cards.
Examples of this generation include IBM 1401,
IBM 7094 AND IBM 7090,
UNIVAC 1107, among others.
Generations Of Computer
Generations Of Computer
Third Generation (1960s 1970s); Integrated circuits became the foundation of third generation computers, enabling further reductions in size while increasing speed. Magnetic disk storage and operating systems were also introduced during this period.
Now let’s move on to discussing the third generation of computers (the 1960s 1970s).During the period from the 1960s to the 1970s, computers relied on integrated circuits (ICs) as their main electronic components.
The storage units utilized magnetic disks or tapes along with large magnetic cores.
Programmers made use of high level languages like BASIC, COBOL and Pascal for programming purposes.
These computers, referred to as minicomputers, were known for their smaller and more efficient sizes.
Compared to the previous generation of computers, there was a notable improvement in both reliability and speed.
In the earlier generations of computers, keyboards, magnetic tape monitors, printers and other devices were commonly used for input and output.
Examples of computers from that time include IBM 370, IBM 360, UNIVAC 1108 and so forth.
Fourth Generation (1970s 1980s); The fourth generation marked the advent of microprocessors, making personal computers a reality. Alongside this development came graphical user interfaces and networking capabilities.
Moving on to the fourth generation of computers (1970s to present), microprocessors and very large scale integration (VLSI) became the main electronic components used.
VLSI refers to the attachment of thousands of transistors onto a single microchip.
During this era, semiconductor memory storage units like RAM and ROM were introduced.
RAM (random access memory) temporarily stores programs and data but loses its contents when the computer is shut down.
On the other hand, ROM (read only memory) permanently stores data and programs even after shutting down the computer.
High level programming languages such as C#, JAVA, Python, JavaScript gained popularity during this time.
The size of computers reduced significantly while their speed improved notably.
Input/output devices in this generation include monitors, mice, keyboards, printers, etc., similar to previous generations.
Examples of fifth generation computers include STAR 1000, APPLE II, IBM PC among others. This generation exists in our present time with potential advancements in the future.
Artificial Intelligence, which utilizes parallel processing and Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), stands as the key electronic components powering today’s computers.
Fifth Generation (1980s Present); We are currently in the fifth generation of computers which emphasize artificial intelligence and parallel processing. This era witnesses advancements in mobile computing as well as the establishment of the internet.
The fifth generation of computers possesses the remarkable ability to comprehend natural human language.
These machines exhibit remarkable speed and compact sizes.
Additionally, fifth generation computers offer portability and boast extensive storage capacity.
Key input/output devices include keyboards, monitors, touchscreen pens, printers, light scanners and more.
Some examples of these computers include laptops, desktops, tablets, smartphones, among others.
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1.The utilization of vacuum tubes was advantageous as they were among the few electronic components available at that time.
2.These early computers exhibited remarkable calculation speeds measured in milliseconds.


1.One major drawback was their large size, weighing around 30 tons.
2.These computers relied on vacuum tubes.
3.They were quite expensive.
4.Their storage capacity was limited due to the presence of magnetic drums.
Additionally, since first generation computers utilized vacuum tubes, they required extensive cooling systems.


To sum up, the evolution of computers across various generations represents an impressive progress achieved in the field of technology. Each generation has built upon the accomplishments of its predecessors, leading to the creation of increasingly advanced and powerful computing systems. As we find ourselves on the verge of a new era filled with technological breakthroughs, it becomes crucial to acknowledge the contributions made by earlier generations in laying down the foundation for our current digital age. The continuous evolution of computers promises a future where possibilities are constantly redefined and propels humanity towards new frontiers in knowledge and innovation.
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