Introduction to Computer

Table of Contents


Computers are electronic devices capable of receiving, storing, processing and outputting data. They are versatile machines that can perform a wide range of tasks and operations, from simple calculations to complex simulations and artificial intelligence.
Computers consist of various hardware components, including the central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage devices, input/output devices, peripherals, as well as software components such as the operating system and applications.
The origins of computers can be traced back to the 19th century when mechanical devices like the Analytical Engine and tabulating machines were developed. However, it was in the mid 20th century that modern computers as we know them today came into existence with inventions like transistors and the development of integrated circuits.
Computers are extensively utilized across various industries, including education, finance, healthcare and entertainment. Their presence has truly revolutionized our way of life, work and communication. Moreover, they have paved the way for groundbreaking technologies like the internet, cloud computing and mobile devices that continue to transform our everyday routines.
A computer is a device that takes in data and converts it into meaningful information by following user provided instructions. It swiftly processes input and delivers the desired output. The functions performed by a computer include accepting data, storing it efficiently, processing it as needed or desired, retrieving stored data whenever required and presenting results in the desired format.
Let’s talk about data and information; Data refers to raw facts and figures that are fed into a computer along with a set of instructions. It is through this combination that computers can convert raw data into refined and useful information. On the other hand, information represents data presented in a meaningful and useful form.
Although related concepts, data and information hold distinct meanings. Data simply consists of unorganized facts and figures without inherent meaning on their own.On the flip side, information refers to processed and organized data that is provided with context to give it significance and practical value.
Data can manifest in various formats, including numerical values, textual content, visual representations or auditory elements. For instance, a collection of sales statistics for a company qualifies as raw data.

Characteristics of Computer 

Computers possess several essential characteristics;
  1. They have processing power that allows them to execute various tasks.
  2. Computers have storage capacity to store both data and programs.
  3. Connectivity enables computers to communicate and transfer data.
  4. Input and output devices allow users to interact with computers.
  5. Software capabilities enable computers to run different applications.
  6. Computers possess multitasking abilities, allowing them to handle multiple tasks simultaneously.
  7. User friendly interfaces make it easy for users to interact with computers.
  8. Upgradability allows for performance enhancements over time.
  9. Computers are compatible with various software and hardware configurations.
  10. Security features ensure the protection of data.
These features collectively make computers powerful tools for a wide range of applications, from basic personal computing to complex scientific and industrial tasks.

Applications of Computer 

In terms of their applications;
1.Education : Education benefits from computers by facilitating interactive learning, research activities and access to educational resources.
2.Communication:  Communication is greatly enhanced by computers, enabling email communication, social media interaction, video calls and other forms of online communication.
3.Entertainment:  Entertainment is made possible through gaming experiences, streaming videos, music enjoyment and other digital entertainment options provided by computers.
4.Business:  Businesses rely on computers for accounting tasks, efficient data management practices, streamlined communication channels and secure online transactions.
5.Healthcare:  Healthcare industries utilize computers for storing patient records securely in electronic formats (EMRs), medical imaging analysis purposes such as X rays or MRIs interpretation, as well as running complex simulations aiding research efforts in diagnosis advancements.
6.Research:  Research benefits from the use of computers due to their capabilities in data analysis across various fields of scientific study along with supporting simulations and modeling processes.
7.Design: Design industries heavily rely on computer technology as they support activities like graphic design projects or 3D modeling crucial in fields such as architecture or fashion design.
8.Transportation: Transportation sectors utilize computer systems for navigation purposes (GPS), traffic control systems management enhancement ensuring efficient traffic flow along with vehicle management processes ultimately leading towards improved transportation safety measures.
9.Manufacturing;Automation, quality control and product design processes in the manufacturing industry heavily rely on the utilization of computers.
10.Banking;Computers play a crucial role in enabling online banking, ensuring secure transactions and effectively managing financial data for both banks and their customers.
Online Banking &Amp; Trading
Online Banking &Amp; Trading

Working of Computer 

Computers work in a straightforward manner, which can be explained as follows;
Input; Users provide data and instructions to the computer using input devices such as keyboards, mice or touchscreens.
Processing; The computer’s central processing unit (CPU) handles the data and instructions, performing calculations and executing tasks based on the given instructions.
Storage; Data and instructions are stored in the computer’s memory, including temporary storage (RAM) for short term purposes and permanent storage (hard drives, solid state drives) for long term purposes.
Output; The processed information is then presented to the user through output devices like monitors, printers or speakers, depending on the nature of the data.
This sequence of input, processing, storage and output allows computers to perform a wide range of tasks. From simple calculations to complex operations, computers have become an essential part of our modern world.


In basic words, computers play a vital role in our daily lives, empowering us to communicate, work, learn and entertain ourselves. They have brought about a revolution in how we access information, conduct business and interact with the world. With their fast and accurate data processing capabilities, computers have become essential tools that have completely changed our way of living and working. They remain a driving force behind innovation and progress, shaping the contemporary world in countless ways. Computer is a very useful machine for every business and any other fields. Computers make online shopping possible, allowing users to browse, select, and purchase products and services from the comfort of their homes.
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