Table of Contents

What is Computer  ?

A computer, on the other hand, is an electronic device that receives input from users, processes it and provides corresponding outcomes or responses. It is essentially a programmable computing machine.
The components of a computer are:
  1. Input Unit
  2. Central Processing Unit(CPU)
  3. output Unit

What is Program?

Imagine you have been given a set of 10 numbers and your task is to calculate their average. How would you go about it? Well, you simply add up all the numbers and then divide the sum by the total count of numbers provided.
Sounds pretty straightforward, right? Now, let’s say we have 10 sets, with each set consisting of 10 numbers. What approach would you take in this case?
There are two possible solutions to tackle this problem;
  1. You can choose one set at a time, add up all the numbers within that set and then divide the sum by the total count of numbers in that set. While this approach works fine for solving the problem manually, it may not be ideal if you’re aiming to become a software engineer.
  1. Alternatively, you can write a program that solves this problem automatically. All you need to do is create a program where the computer takes input from the user and follows specific steps to find the average.
I’ve mentioned the term “procedure” quite often here. But what exactly does it mean?
In simple terms, we define a procedure as a series of step by step instructions given to our computer system. We commonly refer to these instructions as programs. For instance, in our case, taking input from users, adding those inputs together and dividing them by their count is considered a procedure.
Simply put, a program refers to a collection of instructions.

Variables and Syntax

Variables act as containers for storing data values, serving as memory locations for specific data types. Before declaring variables, it is important to adhere to certain rules. Generally, variables are assigned names that consist of alphanumeric characters (a z and 0 9). However, special characters like $ or _ can also be used while declaring a variable.
When writing a program, whether it’s for a simple operation like addition or multiplication or developing an application, the use of variables becomes essential. The name assigned to a variable should begin with an alphabet and can later include numbers or special characters.
Syntax refers to the set of rules that define the structure of a programming language. Each programming language follows its own syntax, which is crucial for understanding the code. Syntax acts as instructions for the code and allows computers to read and comprehend it effectively.
For example,
int a =10;
here a is variable
int is data type
10 is value

Data Types

they are classifications that specify the type of value stored in a variable and determine the operations that can be performed on it. Data types can generally be divided into two categories;
Data Types
Data Types
  1. Primitive. These types define the size and type of a variable. There are eight primitive types 
int (4 bytes)
short (2 bytes)
long (8 bytes)
float (4 bytes)
double (8 bytes)
boolean (1 byte)
char (2 bytes)
Non-Primitive – Non-primitive types are used to call methods to perform operations.
String (8 bytes)
Class (empty class – 1 byte)
Flow Control Structures
Flow Control Structures provide mechanisms for specifying control flow within a program. By incorporating control structures into our programs, we ensure clarity in their execution. These structures play a vital role in program analysis and can be categorized into three types;
Sequential. Sequential execution entails executing code line by line or one after another.
For instance, let’s consider the process of preparing a dish.
Selection refers to the act of determining if a certain condition is true or false and based on that, it generates the ultimate outcome.
basis of which it produces the final result.
Iteration (Loops) – A loop is a structure in which a statement is repeated again and again until the given condition is satisfied. They are of three types –

Why is programming necessary?

The primary purpose of programming is to simplify tasks. By programming a task once, we can reuse it in similar situations, saving time. Programming enables machines to understand and execute user commands. In the future, computer programming will lead to even more automated processes that require minimal human interaction.
For instance, online banking is made possible through programming. Imagine an online banking website or app that allows users to perform transactions using their smartphones or computers. This eliminates the need to physically visit a bank for every small requirement, saving time, energy and effort.
Now let’s discuss data types.

What exactly is an algorithm?

An algorithm is a step by step procedure used to solve computational problems. Are algorithms the same as programs?
Every programming language follows a specific syntax that enables us to write code in a way that machines can easily understand. On the other hand, when working with algorithms, we use pseudocode—an informal language that helps programmers develop their algorithms. Pseudocode is neither English nor actual code.
In addition to the mentioned benefit, another option for a career path is programming, which is currently in high demand.

Computer programming and its applications

Computer programs play a crucial role in solving a wide range of problems and driving innovation across various domains such as agriculture, education, entertainment and more.
Programming languages are utilized in creating graphics for cartoons and adding realistic effects to movies.
In the field of medicine, computers are employed to develop advanced techniques using artificial intelligence and deep learning to detect diseases.
Mobile and Android applications are developed through programming.
Word processing software like Word and spreadsheet software like Excel are commonly used for efficient task completion.
Businesses leverage computer programming in marketing by employing applications and tools for better customer interactions.
Programming facilitates government operations by enabling more effective service access. It involves designing news portals that provide information about governmental tasks as well as building websites that offer online government services.
From smartphones to streaming movies online, coding itself makes everything possible in our daily lives.

Skills and qualities required for programmers

Programmers should strive to write clean and well organized code of high quality.
Problem solving skills are essential for programmers to tackle real world challenges efficiently.
Good communication skills, combined with strong interpersonal abilities, prove valuable for programmers.
Critical thinking is an important trait that programmers should cultivate.
Identifying and rectifying errors in code is a vital aspect of programming.


Experience plays a significant role in the skill set of a programmer. It is crucial to have knowledge of working with databases using SQL and other query languages. In conclusion, the field of computer programming encompasses various aspects of computer science that we have discussed. Programming is a constantly evolving and challenging profession. The key is to stay updated with emerging technologies and skills in order to thrive in this field.
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