Enum in C

When it comes to writing clean and maintainable code in C programming, one powerful tool stands out: Enum. But what exactly is an enum, and why is it so crucial?

In this article, we will explore the world of enums in C programming, diving deep into their syntax, usage scenarios, and advanced techniques. By the end, you’ll have a solid understanding of how to leverage enums effectively to enhance code clarity and maintainability in your C programs.

Key Takeaways:

  • Enums in C programming provide a way to define a set of named constants, making the code more readable and maintainable.
  • By assigning distinct values to enum constants, you can create meaningful representations of different states or options.
  • Enums can be used in switch statements to simplify control flow logic and improve code readability.
  • Understanding enum scope and namespaces is essential to avoid naming conflicts and ensure code organization.
  • Enums can be used as function parameters to improve code clarity and reduce errors.

Understanding Enumerated Types

In this section, we will explore the syntax and structure of enumerated types in C. Enumerated types, also known as enum, are a unique feature in C that allows programmers to define their own set of named values. These named values, known as enum constants, can be assigned values to represent a specific set of related options or states within a program.

To declare an enum in C, the following syntax is used:

enum enum_name {
   constant1,
   constant2,
   constant3,
   ...
};

The enum_name is the identifier for the enum type and the constant1, constant2, constant3, etc., are the enum constants. These constants are implicitly assigned integer values starting from 0 by default. However, you can assign explicit values to the enum constants if needed.

Let’s take a look at an example to understand this better:

enum Color {
   RED,
   GREEN,
   BLUE
};

In the above example, we have defined an enum named Color with three constants: RED, GREEN, and BLUE. By default, RED will have the value 0, GREEN will have the value 1, and BLUE will have the value 2.

You can also explicitly assign values to the enum constants. Let’s modify the above example:

enum Color {
   RED = 1,
   GREEN = 2,
   BLUE = 4
};

Now, RED will have the value 1, GREEN will have the value 2, and BLUE will have the value 4.

Enum constants can be used in program code to represent options or states. They make the code more readable and maintainable by providing meaningful names instead of arbitrary integer values. Enums are often used in switch statements to handle different cases based on the enum constant value.

Summary:

In this section, we have explored the syntax and structure of enumerated types in C. We discussed how enums are declared, defined, and how enum constants are assigned values. Enumerated types are a powerful tool in C programming that allows developers to define their own set of named values, improving code readability and maintainability.

Enumerated Types in C Enum Syntax Enum Constants
Enum types are a unique feature in C that allows programmers to define their own set of named values. The syntax for declaring an enum in C is:
enum enum_name { constant1, constant2, constant3, ... };
Enum constants are the named values within an enum type. They can be implicitly or explicitly assigned integer values.

Enumerating Constants

In this section, we will explore the process of assigning distinct values to enum constants in C. Enumerated types provide a way to define a set of named constants, also known as enum constants, that represent a finite list of possible values. Enum constants are usually used to improve code readability and maintainability by providing meaningful names instead of using raw numbers or characters.

When declaring an enum, each constant is assigned a value, which can be an integer or a character. By default, the first constant is assigned the value 0, and subsequent constants are assigned consecutive values:

An enum declaration with assigned values:

enum Weekdays {
    Monday = 1,    // Monday is assigned the value 1
    Tuesday,       // Tuesday is assigned the value 2
    Wednesday      // Wednesday is assigned the value 3
};

Accessing the values of enum constants can be done by referring to them by their enum type name followed by the constant name. For example:

Using an enum constant in C:

enum Weekdays today = Tuesday;

Enum constants can also be used in variables and expressions:

Using enum constants in variables and expressions:

enum Weekdays tomorrow = today + 1;

By assigning distinct values to enum constants, developers can create more expressive and meaningful code. This can lead to improved code comprehension and easier maintenance, as the intention of the code becomes clearer.

Default Values in Enums

In C, enum constants can be assigned specific values or left unassigned. When an enum constant is left unassigned, it is automatically assigned a default value by the compiler. Understanding default values in enums is important for effectively using them in switch statements and conditional logic.

The default value assigned to an unassigned enum constant is the value of the previous constant plus one. This ensures that each enum constant has a unique value within the enum type.

Default enum values come in handy when using switch statements to handle different enum cases. By providing a default case, you can handle unassigned enum constants or unexpected values gracefully, preventing potential errors or program crashes.

Additionally, default enum values offer flexibility in conditional logic. You can use them as placeholders or uninitialized values, allowing you to initialize enum variables when necessary or handle special cases in your code.

Let’s take a look at an example to illustrate the concept of default enum values:

    
      // Declare and define an enum for days of the week
      enum Days {
        MONDAY,
        TUESDAY,
        WEDNESDAY,
        THURSDAY,
        FRIDAY,
        SATURDAY,
        SUNDAY
      };

      // Declare an enum variable
      enum Days today;

      // Assign an unassigned enum constant to the variable
      today = TUESDAY;

      // Use a switch statement to handle different enum cases
      switch(today) {
        case MONDAY:
          printf("It's Monday!");
          break;
        case TUESDAY:
          printf("It's Tuesday!");
          break;
        case WEDNESDAY:
          printf("It's Wednesday!");
          break;
        default:
          printf("It's another day of the week.");
      }
    
  

In the example above, the enumeration of days of the week is declared and defined. The enum variable “today” is assigned the enum constant “TUESDAY”. Using a switch statement, the program checks the value of “today” and prints the corresponding message.

By including a default case, the program can handle unassigned enum constants or unexpected values. For example, if “today” was assigned a value that does not match any of the enum constants, the default case would be executed, indicating that it’s another day of the week.

Default enum values provide a fallback option and help manage unassigned enum constants in an organized manner. They enhance code robustness and allow for flexibility in handling different scenarios.

Pros Cons
Enables handling of unassigned enum constants Can introduce unexpected behavior if default case is not used
Provides flexibility in conditional logic May result in less predictable code execution
Enhances code readability and maintainability

Enum Type Size and Storage

When working with enum types in C, it’s important to understand the size and storage considerations. Enum constants are internally represented as integers, allowing for efficient memory usage and straightforward comparisons.

The size of an enum type is determined by the range of integer values it can represent. In most implementations, an enum type can hold values from -32767 to 32767, which corresponds to the range of a signed short integer. However, the exact size may vary depending on the compiler and platform.

While enum types can have a relatively small storage size, it’s crucial to be mindful of memory usage when using enums in large-scale projects. Enum variables consume the same amount of memory as their underlying integer type, regardless of the number of enum constants defined.

To illustrate the concept of enum type size and storage, consider the following example:

// Define an enum
enum Color {
    RED,
    GREEN,
    BLUE
};

// Declare an enum variable
enum Color favorite_color;

In this example, the enum type Color is represented by a short integer. Each enum constant, such as RED, GREEN, and BLUE, is assigned a unique integer value in increasing order starting from 0.

When declaring an enum variable, such as favorite_color, the same amount of memory as a short integer is allocated regardless of the number of enum constants. This allows for efficient memory usage, especially when compared to using individual integers for similar purposes.

Overall, understanding the size and storage considerations of enum types in C is essential for optimizing memory usage and improving code efficiency.

Enum Scope and Namespaces

In the world of C programming, understanding the scope and visibility of enum declarations is crucial for writing clean and maintainable code. In this section, we will explore how enums interact with namespaces and discuss best practices for naming enum constants and avoiding naming conflicts.

Enum Scope:

The scope of an enum in C refers to the region of code where the enum is visible and can be accessed without any additional qualification. Enum declarations can have either file scope or block scope.

At the file scope, an enum is accessible throughout the entire file where it is declared, making it global in nature. This allows the enum to be used across multiple functions within the same file.

On the other hand, an enum declared within a block, such as within a function, has a limited scope and is only accessible within that block. This localized scope helps in preventing naming conflicts and improves code readability by restricting the usage of the enum to the block where it is defined.

Enum Namespaces:

In C programming, enums do not have an inherent namespace system like some other programming languages. Instead, they share the same namespace as other identifiers, such as variables and functions.

What this means is that the names of enum constants should be unique within their scope to avoid conflicts with other identifiers. It is considered good practice to use prefixes or other naming conventions specific to enum constants to ensure clarity and reduce the chances of unintended clashes with variable or function names.

For example:

    
      typedef enum {
          STATE_IDLE,
          STATE_RUNNING,
          STATE_COMPLETE
      } MyProgramState;

      int main() {
          int STATE_RUNNING = 5; // Avoid naming conflicts with enum constant

          // Rest of the code
          return 0;
      }
    
  

In the above example, the enum constant STATE_RUNNING is declared within the MyProgramState enum. To avoid potential conflicts, a variable with the same name is given a different scope inside the main function.

By following proper naming conventions and avoiding conflicting names, developers can ensure clarity and maintainability in their codebase.

Best Practices:

When working with enums, it is important to adhere to certain best practices to prevent errors and streamline code development:

  • Choose meaningful and descriptive names for enum constants to enhance code readability.
  • Use consistent naming conventions for enum constants across the project to maintain code consistency.
  • Avoid using generic names or placeholders that don’t provide any meaningful context.
  • Use prefixes or other naming conventions specific to enum constants to minimize the chances of naming conflicts.

Example Code:

Let’s take a look at an example that demonstrates the scope and namespaces of enum declarations:

    
      #include <stdio.h>

      typedef enum {
          FRUIT_APPLE,
          FRUIT_BANANA,
          FRUIT_ORANGE
      } Fruit;

      void printFruit(Fruit fruit) {
          switch (fruit) {
              case FRUIT_APPLE:
                  printf("Selected fruit: Applen");
                  break;
              case FRUIT_BANANA:
                  printf("Selected fruit: Bananan");
                  break;
              case FRUIT_ORANGE:
                  printf("Selected fruit: Orangen");
                  break;
          }
      }

      int main() {
          Fruit myFruit = FRUIT_APPLE;

          printFruit(myFruit);

          return 0;
      }
    
  

In the above example, we define an enum Fruit with three constants: FRUIT_APPLE, FRUIT_BANANA, and FRUIT_ORANGE. These constants are then used in the printFruit function, which prints the selected fruit based on the provided enum constant.

The main function demonstrates how to declare a variable of type Fruit and pass it as an argument to the printFruit function. By using the enum constants, we ensure clear and concise code that is less prone to errors compared to using integer values directly.

By understanding the scope and namespaces of enum declarations, developers can effectively utilize enums in their C programs, enhancing code clarity and reducing the risk of naming conflicts.

Enumerations as Flags

In C, enumerations can be used as flags to represent multiple states or options. By combining enum constants using bitwise operations, developers can create powerful combinations that allow for efficient handling of various conditions.

Bitwise operations, such as OR, AND, and XOR, can be applied to enums to combine or extract specific flags. This enables fine-grained control over the individual bits within the enum value, allowing for flexible manipulation and interpretation of state information.

When using enums as flags, each enum constant should be assigned a unique power of 2 value. This ensures that each constant represents a single bit position within the resulting combined value. By assigning powers of 2, the combined value can be treated as a binary number, with each bit representing a specific flag.

To combine enum constants, the bitwise OR operator “|” is used. This operation sets the corresponding bits in the result to 1 if either of the bits in the operands is 1. The combined value represents the specified combination of flags.


enum Flags {
  FLAG_A = 1,       // 0001
  FLAG_B = 2,       // 0010
  FLAG_C = 4,       // 0100
  FLAG_D = 8        // 1000
};

enum Flags combinedFlags = FLAG_B | FLAG_C;  // 0010 | 0100 = 0110

By performing bitwise operations, developers can check for the presence of specific flags or modify the state of an enum by toggling or selectively setting and clearing flags.

Here are some commonly used bitwise operators in C:

  • Bitwise OR (|): Sets a bit to 1 if either of the corresponding bits in the operands is 1.
  • Bitwise AND (&): Sets a bit to 1 if both corresponding bits in the operands are 1.
  • Bitwise XOR (^): Sets a bit to 1 if the corresponding bits in the operands are different.
  • Bitwise NOT (~): Inverts the bits of the operand, setting 1s to 0s and vice versa.
  • Bitwise left shift ( Shifts the bits of the operand to the left by a specified number of positions.
  • Bitwise right shift (>>): Shifts the bits of the operand to the right by a specified number of positions.

Example: Using Enums as Flags in File Permissions

One practical application of using enums as flags is in file permission systems. By assigning different powers of 2 to represent read, write, and execute permissions, flags can be combined to represent the desired access levels.


enum Permission {
  READ = 1,        // 0001
  WRITE = 2,       // 0010
  EXECUTE = 4      // 0100
};

enum Permission myPermissions = READ | WRITE;   // 0001 | 0010 = 0011

In the example above, the combined value “0011” represents both read and write permissions. By using bitwise operations, developers can easily check if specific permissions are present or modify the existing permissions by toggling or selectively setting and clearing flags.

Using enums as flags provides a flexible and efficient way to handle multiple states or options in C programming. By applying bitwise operations, developers can create powerful combinations and enhance the functionality and expressiveness of their code.

Enum Usage in Switch Statements

Switch statements are a powerful tool for controlling program flow based on different conditions. When working with enums, switch statements offer an elegant and readable way to handle specific enum values. By using enum constants as the cases in a switch statement, developers can easily perform different operations depending on the value of the enum.

Let’s consider the following example:

#include <stdio.h>

typedef enum {

MONDAY,

TUESDAY,

WEDNESDAY,

THURSDAY,

FRIDAY,

SATURDAY,

SUNDAY

} DaysOfWeek;

void printDay(DaysOfWeek day) {

switch(day) {

case MONDAY:

printf(“It’s Monday. Start of the week!n”);

break;

case TUESDAY:

printf(“It’s Tuesday. Keep pushing through!n”);

break;

case WEDNESDAY:

printf(“It’s Wednesday. Halfway there!n”);

break;

case THURSDAY:

printf(“It’s Thursday. Almost there!n”);

break;

case FRIDAY:

printf(“It’s Friday. Weekend is just around the corner!n”);

break;

case SATURDAY:

printf(“It’s Saturday. Enjoy your weekend!n”);

break;

case SUNDAY:

printf(“It’s Sunday. Relax and recharge!n”);

break;

}

}

int main() {

DaysOfWeek today = FRIDAY;

printDay(today);

return 0;

}

This example demonstrates how enum constants can be used as cases in a switch statement to print a different message based on the day of the week. By utilizing enums in switch statements, the code becomes more expressive, readable, and maintainable compared to using integers or characters directly.

Using enums in switch statements also allows for greater flexibility. If a new enum constant needs to be added, there’s no need to update every if-else statement throughout the codebase. Instead, a single case can be added to the switch statement, ensuring that the logic remains concise and manageable.

Overall, enums in switch statements provide a powerful control flow mechanism in C programming, offering improved code readability and maintainability. The use of enum constants as cases in switch statements simplifies the logic and enhances code organization.

Enum Iteration

In the world of C programming, being able to iterate over enum constants can greatly enhance the flexibility and efficiency of your code. Enum iteration allows you to loop through the range of enum values, enabling you to perform operations on each constant systematically.

But how exactly can you achieve enum iteration? Let’s explore some techniques that will empower you to make the most out of your enum constants.

The ‘for’ Loop Approach

One of the simplest ways to iterate over enum values is by using a ‘for’ loop. By utilizing the ordinal values of the enum constants, you can define a loop that iterates through the entire range.

Example:


enum Days { Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday };

for (enum Days day = Monday; day 

In the above example, the ‘for’ loop initializes the enum variable ‘day’ with the first enum constant, ‘Monday’. The loop continues until the ‘day’ variable reaches the last enum constant, ‘Friday’. You can then perform specific operations within the loop’s block with each enum constant.

The ‘switch’ Statement Technique

Another approach to achieve enum iteration is through the use of a ‘switch’ statement. Instead of explicitly defining a loop, you can leverage the control flow of the ‘switch’ statement to iterate over the enum constants one by one.

Example:


enum Colors { Red, Green, Blue };

enum Colors color = Red;

switch (color) {
    case Red:
        // Operations for Red
        printf("The color is Redn");
        break;
    case Green:
        // Operations for Green
        printf("The color is Greenn");
        break;
    case Blue:
        // Operations for Blue
        printf("The color is Bluen");
        break;
}

In the above example, the ‘switch’ statement is used to perform operations based on the value of the ‘color’ variable. By setting ‘color’ to each enum constant within the ‘switch’ statement, you can execute specific operations for each constant.

Practical Use Cases

Enum iteration is particularly useful in scenarios where you need to apply a certain logic or action to each enum constant. Some practical use cases for enum iteration include:

  • Processing a list of options or states represented by enum constants
  • Populating a dropdown menu with enum values
  • Converting enum constants to strings for display purposes
  • Implementing a state machine with well-defined transitions

By mastering enum iteration techniques, you can unlock the full potential of your enum constants and streamline your code for improved efficiency and maintainability.

Enum as Function Parameters

In C programming, enums can be used as function parameters, allowing for improved code clarity and reduced errors. By defining function prototypes with enum arguments, developers can create more expressive and self-explanatory code, making it easier to understand and maintain.

Enums as function parameters provide a clear and concise way to specify the input requirements of a function. By using enums, developers can ensure that only valid and predefined values are passed as arguments, eliminating the possibility of runtime errors caused by incorrect parameter values.

When defining a function prototype with enum arguments, it is important to specify the enum type and name inside the parentheses. This helps to establish the expected input and simplifies the function implementation. Enum arguments can be used in a similar way to other primitive data types such as integers or characters.

Here is an example of a function prototype with an enum argument:

void printStatus(enum StatusType status);

The above function prototype specifies the parameter status as an enum of type StatusType. This indicates that the function expects a value from the StatusType enum as an argument.

Using enums as function parameters can greatly enhance code readability and make the purpose of the function more apparent. It provides a simple and intuitive way to communicate the expected inputs and improves the overall structure and clarity of the code.

Enum Comparison and Equality

When working with enums in C, it is often necessary to compare enum constants and test for equality. This allows developers to perform logic and make decisions based on the values of enum constants. To achieve this, C provides a set of relational operators that can be used with enums.

Relational operators: Enum comparison and equality can be done using the following relational operators:

Operator Description
== Checks if two enum constants have the same value.
!= Checks if two enum constants have different values.
Checks if the value of one enum constant is less than another.
Checks if the value of one enum constant is less than or equal to another.
> Checks if the value of one enum constant is greater than another.
>= Checks if the value of one enum constant is greater than or equal to another.

Using these operators, you can perform various comparisons to determine how enum constants relate to each other. For example:

If two enum constants have the same value, they are considered equal:

enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE };
enum Color c1 = RED;
enum Color c2 = RED;
if (c1 == c2) {
    // Perform some action
}

If two enum constants have different values, they are considered unequal:

enum Size { SMALL, MEDIUM, LARGE };
enum Size s1 = SMALL;
enum Size s2 = LARGE;
if (s1 != s2) {
    // Perform some action
}

It is important to note that while enum constants can be compared for equality or inequality, comparing enum constants for ordering using the less than () operators is not supported in C. Enum constants are not inherently ordered, and attempting to compare them in this way may produce unexpected results.

When comparing enum constants, it is also worth considering the use of switch statements for more complex comparisons. Switch statements can be a powerful tool when dealing with enum constants, allowing for concise and readable code:

enum Day { SUNDAY, MONDAY, TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY, THURSDAY, FRIDAY, SATURDAY };
enum Day currentDay = ...;
switch (currentDay) {
    case SATURDAY:
    case SUNDAY:
        // Perform weekend-specific actions
        break;
    case MONDAY:
    case TUESDAY:
    case WEDNESDAY:
    case THURSDAY:
    case FRIDAY:
        // Perform weekday-specific actions
        break;
}

In conclusion, understanding how to compare and test for equality among enum constants is crucial when working with enumerated types in C. By utilizing the appropriate relational operators and leveraging switch statements, developers can effectively analyze enum values and make informed decisions based on their relationships.

Advanced Enum Techniques

In this section, we will explore advanced techniques for using enums in C. Specifically, we will discuss enum aliases and the typedef keyword, which can greatly enhance code readability and maintainability.

Enum Aliases

Enum aliases allow you to create alternative names for enum types, making your code more expressive and self-explanatory. By assigning an alias to an enum type, you can use the alias instead of the original enum name throughout your code.

Example:

typedef enum GameDifficulty
{
    EASY,
    MEDIUM,
    HARD
} Difficulty;

Difficulty level = MEDIUM;

In the example above, we create an alias “Difficulty” for the enum type “GameDifficulty”. This allows us to use the shorter and more descriptive “Difficulty” in the rest of our code, improving code readability.

Enum Typedef

The typedef keyword is a powerful tool that simplifies the declaration of enum types. It allows you to define a new name for an existing enum type, eliminating the need to include the “enum” keyword every time you declare a variable of that type.

Example:

typedef enum
{
    MONDAY,
    TUESDAY,
    WEDNESDAY,
    THURSDAY,
    FRIDAY
} Weekday;

Weekday today = TUESDAY;

In the example above, we use typedef to create a new name “Weekday” for the enum type. This simplifies the declaration of variables of that type, allowing us to directly use the typedef name without the “enum” keyword.

Summary

In this section, we explored advanced enum techniques, including enum aliases and the typedef keyword. Enum aliases provide alternative names for enum types, improving code clarity and comprehension. The typedef keyword simplifies the declaration of enum types, reducing code verbosity. By employing these advanced techniques, you can enhance the readability and maintainability of your C code.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this article has provided a comprehensive overview of using Enum in C. Throughout the sections, readers have explored the syntax, usage scenarios, and advanced techniques of enums, allowing them to develop a solid understanding of how to leverage this powerful feature effectively.

By using enums, programmers can enhance code clarity and maintainability in their C programs. By assigning meaningful names to constants, enums make code more readable and self-explanatory. They also provide a structured approach to handle multiple states or options using enum flags, simplifying control flow logic.

Additionally, enums improve code robustness by eliminating magic numbers and preventing unintended input errors. They can be used as function parameters, making code more expressive and reducing the likelihood of bugs. The comparison and equality operations on enum constants enable precise control over program flow and decision-making.

Overall, enums offer a valuable toolset for C programmers, allowing them to write cleaner, more maintainable code. Understanding the concepts and techniques presented in this article will empower readers to take full advantage of enums, enhancing their coding efficiency and producing high-quality software.

FAQ

What is an enum in C?

An enum in C is a user-defined data type that consists of a set of named values, called enum constants. It allows programmers to define a set of related values that can be used to represent various states or options within a program.

How do you declare and define an enum in C?

To declare and define an enum in C, you use the ‘enum’ keyword followed by the name of the enum type and the list of enum constants enclosed in curly braces. For example:

enum Weekdays {Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday};

How are values assigned to enum constants?

By default, the first enum constant is assigned the value of 0, and the subsequent constants are assigned values that are one greater than the previous constant. However, you can assign specific values to enum constants by using the assignment operator. For example:

enum Colors {Red = 1, Green = 3, Blue = 5};

How do you access the values of enum constants?

You can access the values of enum constants by using the dot notation: enum_name.constant_name. For example:

enum Colors color = Blue;

Here, the value of ‘color’ would be 5.

What are default values in enums?

Default values in enums are automatically assigned to unassigned enum constants. The default values start from 0 for the first enum constant and increment by 1 for each subsequent constant. Default values are useful when using enums in switch statements or for assigning initial values to variables.

How do enums handle scope and namespaces?

Enum declarations have global scope by default. However, you can limit the visibility of an enum by declaring it within a specific scope, such as a function or a block. Enum constants share the same scope as the enum type. Naming conflicts can be avoided by using unique enum constant names or by using namespaces.

Can enums be used as flags?

Yes, enums can be used as flags by combining multiple enum constants using bitwise operators. This allows for efficient representation of multiple states or options using a single enum variable.

How can enums be used in switch statements?

Enums can be used in switch statements as the control variable. Each case statement can correspond to a specific enum constant, improving code readability and simplifying control flow logic compared to using integers or characters in switch statements.

How can you iterate over enum constants?

Enum constants can be iterated over by setting up a loop that goes from the minimum to the maximum value of the enum. By incrementing the loop variable, you can access each enum constant in order.

Can enums be used as function parameters?

Yes, enums can be used as function parameters. Function prototypes can be defined with enum arguments, allowing for improved code clarity and reducing the risk of passing incorrect values.

How do you compare enum constants for equality?

Enum constants can be compared for equality using relational operators, such as ‘==’ or ‘!=’. These operators can be used to check if a given enum value matches a specific constant or to compare two enum values.

What are some advanced techniques for using enums?

Advanced techniques for using enums include creating aliases for enums using typedef and using typedef to simplify the declaration of enum types. These techniques can enhance code readability and make the usage of enums more intuitive.

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Deepak Vishwakarma

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