Storage Classes in c

When it comes to C programming, understanding the ins and outs of storage classes is a vital skill. They play a crucial role in determining the scope, lifetime, and visibility of variables within a program. But how well do you really know storage classes?

Have you ever wondered why variables behave differently in different parts of your code? Or why some variables retain their values across function calls while others do not? If you’re curious about these puzzling aspects of C programming, then you’ve come to the right place.

In this comprehensive guide, we will demystify storage classes in C and uncover their secrets. From automatic to static, register to external, and thread-local, we will explore the wide array of storage classes and their impact on your code. We will delve into the fascinating world of variable scope, lifetime, and visibility, and provide best practices to help you leverage storage classes effectively.

So, let’s embark on this exciting journey and unlock the mysteries of storage classes in C. Discover how they shape your variables and gain a deeper understanding of C programming like never before.

Table of Contents

Key Takeaways:

  • Storage classes in C programming determine the scope, lifetime, and visibility of variables.
  • Understanding storage classes is crucial for controlling variable behavior in different parts of your code.
  • There are different types of storage classes in C, including automatic, static, register, external, and thread-local.
  • Variable scope defines where a variable is accessible within your code.
  • Variable lifetime refers to the duration for which a variable exists in memory.

What are Storage Classes?

In the world of C programming language, storage classes play a vital role in defining the characteristics and behavior of variables. They determine the scope, lifetime, and visibility of variables, allowing programmers to control how memory is allocated and accessed. Understanding storage classes is crucial for writing efficient and maintainable code.

Storage classes can be defined as a set of rules that govern the storage and management of variables in a C program. They specify where a variable will be stored, how long it will exist, and how it can be accessed by different parts of the program.

“In C, storage classes are used to define the storage location, lifetime, and accessibility of variables.”

There are several types of storage classes in C, each with its own characteristics and use cases:

1. Automatic Storage Class:

The automatic storage class, also known as the “auto” class, is the default storage class used when no other class is specified. Variables with automatic storage class are typically declared inside a function and have a local scope within that function. They are created when the function is called and destroyed when the function exits.

2. Register Storage Class:

The register storage class allows variables to be stored in CPU registers for faster access. While the use of this class is more of a suggestion to the compiler rather than a strict rule, it can improve the performance of programs with frequent access to certain variables.

3. Static Storage Class:

Variables with static storage class retain their value across multiple function calls. They are allocated memory once and remain in existence throughout the entire execution of the program. This class is often used for global variables and variables with file scope.

4. External Storage Class:

The external storage class enables variables to be shared across multiple source files in a C program. It is used when a variable needs to be accessed by different parts of the program that are not in the same source file. External variables have a global scope and can be accessed by all functions in the program.

5. Thread-local Storage Class:

The thread-local storage class allows each thread in a multi-threaded program to have its own copy of a variable. This class ensures that each thread works with its own isolated version of a variable, avoiding data conflicts and synchronization issues.

“Understanding the different storage classes in C is essential for effective variable management and optimizing program performance.”

Table: Comparison of Storage Classes in C

Storage Class Scope Lifetime Visibility
Automatic (auto) Local to the block where it is defined Exists during function execution Not visible outside the block
Register Local to the block where it is defined Exists during function execution Not visible outside the block
Static Local to the block where it is defined Exists throughout the program execution Not visible outside the block
External Global scope (visible across multiple files) Exists throughout the program execution Visible to all functions in the program
Thread-local Local to the thread where it is defined Exists throughout the thread execution Not visible to other threads

Automatic Storage Class

In the C programming language, the automatic storage class is one of the four storage classes available, alongside register, static, and external. Variables declared with the automatic storage class are typically referred to as local variables.

Local variables are defined within a specific block of code, often within a function. They are allocated memory when the block is entered and deallocated when the block is exited. Unlike variables with other storage classes, local variables are not accessible outside the block in which they are defined.

The automatic storage class is the default storage class for all variables defined within a function. It is not explicitly specified, as the compiler automatically assumes the variable is of automatic storage class if no other storage class specifier is provided.

Here is an example of declaring a local variable with the automatic storage class:

void calculateSum() {

int num1 = 10; // automatic storage class

int num2 = 20; // automatic storage class

int sum = num1 + num2;

// Rest of the code...

}

In the example code above, the variables num1, num2, and sum have the automatic storage class since no explicit storage class specifier is provided. These variables are only accessible within the calculateSum() function and have a scope limited to its block.

The automatic storage class offers several advantages, including efficient memory management and reduced risk of naming conflicts with variables in other blocks. However, it is important to note that local variables with automatic storage class are not persistent between function calls. Each time the function is invoked, they are allocated fresh memory and initialized accordingly.

To further understand the scope and lifetime of variables with the automatic storage class, refer to the table below:

Characteristics Automatic Storage Class
Scope Local to the block in which the variable is defined.
Lifetime Allocated when the block is entered and deallocated when the block is exited.
Visibility Not accessible outside the block in which the variable is defined.

Register Storage Class

The register storage class in C allows variables to be stored in CPU registers, providing faster access compared to variables stored in memory. The use of CPU registers can significantly improve the performance of a program, especially for frequently accessed variables.

However, it is important to note that the register storage class has limitations. The number of available CPU registers is limited, and the compiler determines which variables are allocated to registers based on optimization strategies. Variables declared with the register storage class specifier are not guaranteed to be stored in registers, especially if there are more variables than available registers.

Here are some key points to consider when using the register storage class:

  1. Variables declared with the register storage class specifier must be of integer or pointer type.
  2. The compiler may ignore the register storage class specifier in situations where it deems the use of registers inefficient.
  3. Attempting to take the address of a variable declared with the register storage class specifier will result in a compilation error.

Overall, the register storage class can be a useful optimization technique in certain scenarios where performance is critical. However, its effectiveness depends on the compiler’s ability to allocate variables to CPU registers. It is recommended to profile and measure performance improvements before and after using the register storage class to ensure its effectiveness.

Key Points Register Storage Class
Variable types Integer or pointer types
Compiler behavior May ignore the register storage class specifier
Addressability Taking the address of a variable declared with the register storage class specifier is not allowed

Static Storage Class

The static storage class is a fundamental concept in the C programming language that allows variables to retain their value across multiple function calls. Unlike variables with automatic storage class, which are created and destroyed each time a function is called, static variables preserve their value throughout the entire duration of the program execution.

Variables declared with the static storage class have file scope, meaning they are visible and accessible within the same source file in which they are defined. This makes static variables useful for creating data that can be shared across different functions within the same file.

Static variables are initialized only once, during program startup, and retain their value even after a function call ends. This behavior can be advantageous when we need to track the state or history of a variable across multiple invocations of a function.

Let’s take a look at an example to better understand the static storage class:

#include <stdio.h>

void incrementCount()

{

static int count = 0;

count++;

printf("Count: %dn", count);

}

int main()

{

incrementCount();

incrementCount();

incrementCount();

return 0;

}

When this program is executed, the incrementCount() function is called three times. The static variable count is shared across these function calls and retains its value between invocations. As a result, the program output will be:

Output
Count: 1
Count: 2
Count: 3

In the example above, the static variable count is declared inside the incrementCount() function. However, since it has the static storage class, its value is preserved and incremented across multiple calls to incrementCount().

Using static variables can be useful in various scenarios, such as maintaining a persistent counter, caching expensive computations, or sharing data between different functions within the same file.

External Storage Class

In the C programming language, the external storage class plays a crucial role in enabling variables to be shared across multiple source files within a program. By declaring a variable with the external storage class, you can ensure its visibility and accessibility throughout different parts of your codebase.

External variables have global scope, meaning they can be accessed by any function within the program. This makes them incredibly useful for storing data that needs to be shared and accessed by multiple functions or files. Global variables declared with the external storage class also retain their values across different function calls.

When using the external storage class, it is important to understand the concept of linking. Linking refers to the process of connecting and combining multiple source files to create the final executable program. External variables can be linked across different source files by using the ‘extern’ keyword.

“By declaring variables with the external storage class, we can ensure their visibility and accessibility across multiple files in our C program. This allows us to share crucial data between functions and modules, promoting code reusability and modularity.”

Let’s take a look at an example to understand how external storage class variables work:

File 1: main.c File 2: utils.c
extern int globalVariable; extern int globalVariable;
int main() { int addNumbers() {
 ...  ...
 globalVariable = 10;  int result = globalVariable + 5;
 ...  ...
}  return result;

In this example, the globalVariable is declared as an external variable using the ‘extern’ keyword in both main.c and utils.c files. By doing so, the globalVariable becomes accessible to both the main function in main.c and the addNumbers function in utils.c.

By utilizing the external storage class, you can effectively share and manipulate data across different modules and files in your C program. This promotes modular code design and enhances code reusability.

Thread-local Storage Class

Thread-local storage class is a unique feature in programming languages that allows each thread to have its own copy of a variable. This means that each thread can access and modify its own version of the variable without interfering with other threads. Thread-local storage eliminates the need for synchronization mechanisms, such as locks or semaphores, when working with shared variables in a multi-threaded environment.

When a variable is declared with the thread-local storage class, each thread will have its own independent memory space to store the variable’s value. This enables efficient thread-specific data management and eliminates the risks of data races and other synchronization issues. Thread-local storage is particularly useful in scenarios where multiple threads need to maintain their own state or require thread-specific configurations.

One common use case of thread-local storage is in web server applications that handle multiple concurrent requests. Each thread can have its own instance of a database connection or request-specific data, ensuring isolation and scalability. By using thread-local storage, developers can simplify their code and improve performance by avoiding costly locks and unnecessary shared resource management. Additionally, it helps in enhancing the maintainability and readability of the code by encapsulating thread-specific logic within the thread-local variables.

Benefits of Thread-local Storage Class

  • Thread isolation: As each thread has its own copy of a variable, it eliminates the need for synchronization mechanisms and reduces the chances of data races or shared resource conflicts.
  • Improved performance: By avoiding locks and allowing concurrent access to thread-local variables, applications can achieve better scalability and responsiveness.
  • Simplified code: Thread-local storage helps in organizing and encapsulating thread-specific logic, making the code more readable and maintainable.
  • Efficient resource management: By utilizing thread-local variables, developers can allocate and deallocate resources on a per-thread basis, avoiding unnecessary overhead and memory consumption.

Thread-local storage class is a valuable tool for managing thread-specific data in multi-threaded programming. It provides thread isolation, improves performance, and simplifies code by encapsulating thread-specific logic. By leveraging thread-local storage, developers can enhance the scalability, responsiveness, and maintainability of their applications.

Brief Comparison of Storage Classes

When working with variables in the C programming language, understanding the different storage classes is essential. Each storage class has its own characteristics that affect the scope, lifetime, and visibility of variables within a program. In this section, we will compare the storage classes and discuss their variable characteristics. Below is a brief overview of each storage class:

  1. Automatic Storage Class: This storage class is commonly used for local variables within functions. Variables with automatic storage class have automatic lifespan and are only accessible within the function they are declared in.
  2. Register Storage Class: The register storage class allows variables to be stored in CPU registers for faster access. However, it is important to note that the usage of this storage class is limited and depends on the availability of registers.
  3. Static Storage Class: Variables with static storage class retain their values across different function calls. They have a file scope, meaning they are accessible across multiple functions within the same source file.
  4. External Storage Class: This storage class is used for global variables that can be shared across multiple source files in a program. External variables have a global scope and can be accessed by any function within the program.
  5. Thread-local Storage Class: Variables with thread-local storage class have their own copy in each thread. This allows them to have distinct values for each thread, ensuring thread-specific functionality.

To provide a clearer understanding of the differences between these storage classes, the table below summarizes their key characteristics:

Storage Class Scope Lifetime Visibility
Automatic Function Automatic Function
Register Function Automatic Function
Static File Static File
External Program Static Program
Thread-local Thread Static Thread

Understanding the characteristics of each storage class will help you choose the most appropriate one for your variables based on their intended usage and requirements. In the following sections, we will delve deeper into each storage class, exploring their usage, benefits, and best practices for declaring variables.

Declaring Variables with Storage Classes

In the C programming language, declaring variables with storage classes is essential for effectively managing variable scope, lifetime, and visibility. By using the appropriate storage class specifiers, programmers can define the characteristics of variables and control their behavior within a program.

When declaring variables, it is important to understand the different storage classes available in C. Each storage class has its own set of rules and implications for variable declaration. Here is a brief overview of the common storage classes:

  • auto: This is the default storage class and is typically used for local variables within functions. Variables with the auto storage class are automatically allocated and deallocated with each function call.
  • register: This storage class enables variables to be stored in CPU registers for faster access. However, the use of register is limited due to the availability of register space and compiler optimization.
  • static: Variables with the static storage class retain their value across multiple function calls. They have file scope and are accessible within the file where they are declared.
  • extern: The extern storage class is used to declare variables that are defined in another source file. It allows variables to be shared across multiple files in a program.
  • thread_local: This storage class is used to declare thread-specific variables. Each thread has its own copy of the variable, ensuring thread-safe operations.

When declaring variables, it is crucial to choose the appropriate storage class that aligns with the intended behavior and purpose of the variable. By understanding the different storage classes and their implications, programmers can optimize resource usage and ensure efficient variable management in their C programs.

Understanding Variable Scope

In the C programming language, variable scope refers to the portion of a program where a variable can be accessed and used. It determines the visibility and lifetime of a variable within a program. In this section, we will explore the concept of variable scope in detail, focusing on both block scope and file scope.

Block Scope

In C, variables declared within a block of code, such as within a function or a loop, have block scope. This means that the variable is only accessible within that specific block of code. Once the block is exited, the variable is no longer accessible.

Block-scoped variables are typically preferred over file-scoped variables, as they provide better encapsulation and reduce the chances of naming conflicts in larger programs.

File Scope

On the other hand, variables declared outside any block of code, at the top of a file, have file scope. These variables are accessible throughout the entire source file. They are often referred to as global variables.

File-scoped variables can be accessed by any function within the file, making them useful for sharing data across different functions. However, they can also introduce potential issues such as naming conflicts and difficulty in tracking dependencies.

Example:

Consider the following code snippet:

#include <stdio.h>

int globalVariable = 10;

void function1() {

int localVariable = 5;

}

void function2() {

printf("%dn", globalVariable);

printf("%dn", localVariable); // Error: localVariable is not accessible here

}

In the above example, the variable globalVariable has file scope and can be accessed by both function1 and function2. However, the variable localVariable has block scope and is only accessible within function1.

Understanding variable scope is crucial for writing clean and maintainable code. It helps ensure that variables are used in the appropriate context and minimizes the risk of unintended consequences.

Next, we will explore variable lifetime and how it is affected by storage classes in a C program.

Managing Variable Lifetime

In a C program, the lifetime of a variable refers to the period during which the variable is allocated and accessible in memory. It encompasses the initialization of the variable’s value and its eventual deallocation. Of course, the choice of storage class for a variable greatly influences its lifetime. Let’s explore how different storage classes affect variable lifetime in C programming.

1. Automatic Storage Class

The automatic storage class is the default for variables declared inside a function or block. Variables with automatic storage class are allocated upon entering the block or function and deallocated when the block or function is exited. Their lifetime is limited to the scope in which they are declared, meaning they are accessible only within that function or block.

2. Static Storage Class

Static variables have a longer lifetime than variables with automatic storage class. These variables are allocated when the program starts and remain in memory until the program completes execution. Static variables maintain their value across function calls and have a scope that spans the entire file in which they are declared.

3. Dynamic Memory Allocation

Variables can also have a dynamic lifetime through dynamic memory allocation. This involves allocating memory at runtime using functions like malloc() or calloc(). Dynamic variables have a lifetime that extends until they are explicitly deallocated using the free() function. They offer more flexibility in terms of memory management but require careful initialization and deallocation to prevent memory leaks or access errors.

4. Register Storage Class

Variables with the register storage class, which are stored in CPU registers for faster access, have a similar lifetime to those with automatic storage class. However, the actual lifetime and usage depend on the compiler and the availability of register space. Using the register storage class can optimize the performance of frequently accessed variables.

“The variable lifetime is a critical aspect in programming, as it determines when and how long a variable can be accessed. By understanding and managing variable lifetime effectively, developers can enhance the efficiency and reliability of their code.”

In summary, the choice of storage class in C programming directly impacts the lifetime of a variable. Variables with automatic storage class have a limited lifetime within the scope of their declaration. Static variables span the entire file and persist throughout the execution of the program. Dynamic variables allow for more flexible memory allocation and deallocation. Register variables have a similar lifetime to automatic variables but benefit from faster access in CPU registers.

By considering the lifetime requirements of variables, programmers can make informed decisions and optimize their code for efficient memory usage and performance.

Variable Visibility

In the C programming language, the visibility of variables is influenced by the storage classes used. Storage classes determine the accessibility of variables in different parts of a program and play a crucial role in organizing namespaces. Understanding variable visibility is essential for writing clean and maintainable code.

Accessibility and Namespace

Variable accessibility refers to the ability to access and manipulate variables within different scopes of a program. It is controlled by the storage class declarations and the namespaces in which variables are declared.

A namespace is a region or scope within which a unique name can be used to identify variables, functions, and other entities. It helps prevent naming conflicts and allows for better organization of code. Each storage class has its own rules for defining the namespace of variables.

Automatic Storage Class

The automatic storage class, also known as the local storage class, limits the visibility of variables to the block in which they are declared. These variables are only accessible within the function or block where they are defined. They are created when the block is entered and destroyed when the block is exited.

Register Storage Class

The register storage class allows variables to be stored in the CPU registers for faster access. However, the visibility of variables with the register storage class is limited to the block in which they are declared, just like automatic variables.

Static Storage Class

Variables with the static storage class have a wider visibility as they retain their values across different function calls. They are accessible within the function or file where they are declared. Static variables have file scope, meaning they can be accessed by any function within the same file, but not outside of it.

External Storage Class

Variables with the external storage class have the highest visibility. They can be accessed across multiple source files in a program. External variables are declared in one source file and can be used in other files by using the extern keyword.

“extern int globalVariable;”

Thread-local Storage Class

The thread-local storage class allows each thread to have its own copy of a variable. This ensures that each thread accesses its own version of the variable, preventing any data conflicts. Variables with the thread-local storage class have limited visibility and are only accessible within the thread that declares them.

Comparison of Variable Visibility

Here is a comparison of the variable visibility across the different storage classes:

Storage Class Variable Visibility
Automatic Block scope
Register Block scope
Static File scope
External Program scope
Thread-local Thread scope

Understanding variable visibility and the impact of storage classes on accessibility and namespace is crucial for writing efficient and maintainable code in the C programming language. By using the appropriate storage classes and understanding their visibility characteristics, developers can ensure that variables are accessible only where they are needed and prevent naming conflicts.

Best Practices for Using Storage Classes

When it comes to utilizing storage classes in your C programming projects, following best practices is essential to ensure code readability and maintainability. By implementing these recommendations, you can optimize your code and avoid potential issues that may arise from improper usage of storage classes.

  1. Choose the appropriate storage class: Understand the characteristics and limitations of each storage class to select the most suitable one for your variables. Consider factors such as scope, lifetime, and visibility when deciding.
  2. Limit the use of global variables: While the external storage class allows variables to be shared across multiple source files, excessive reliance on global variables can lead to code complexity and hinder modularity. Use global variables sparingly and prefer local variables when possible.
  3. Avoid reusing the same variable name: To prevent confusion and potential bugs, avoid reusing variable names across different storage classes. Each variable should have a clear and distinct purpose, making code easier to understand and maintain.
  4. Initialize variables properly: Always initialize variables with an appropriate value to avoid uninitialized variable errors. Take advantage of the automatic storage class, which initializes variables to 0 or null by default, whenever applicable.
  5. Keep scope narrow: Use block scope rather than file scope whenever possible to limit the visibility of variables. This enhances code readability and reduces the chances of naming conflicts.
  6. Avoid unnecessary use of the register storage class: While using the register storage class can optimize variable access, the benefits are often minimal in modern compilers. Reserve the register storage class for variables that truly require fast access.

By following these best practices, you can ensure that your usage of storage classes aligns with industry standards and promotes robust, maintainable code. Now let’s take a look at some examples to illustrate these recommendations.

Common Mistakes and Pitfalls

When working with storage classes in C programming, it’s crucial to be aware of common mistakes and pitfalls that can arise. By understanding these potential errors, you can avoid them and ensure the smooth execution of your code. Here are some common mistakes and pitfalls to watch out for:

1. Incorrect Declaration of Storage Class

One common mistake is declaring a variable with the wrong storage class. This can lead to unexpected behaviors and errors in your program. Make sure to carefully choose the appropriate storage class for your variables, considering factors such as scope, lifetime, and visibility.

2. Mixing Storage Classes Inappropriately

Another pitfall is mixing storage classes inappropriately within a single program or function. Using multiple storage classes for the same variable can result in confusion and conflicts. It is important to understand the differences between storage classes and their intended purposes to avoid such mistakes.

3. Not Initializing Static Variables

When using static storage class, failing to initialize static variables can lead to unpredictable program behavior. Always ensure that your static variables are properly initialized to the desired initial value.

4. Using Thread-local Storage Incorrectly

Thread-local storage class should be used carefully to avoid synchronization issues. Improper handling of thread-local variables can lead to race conditions and data corruption. Make sure to synchronize access to thread-local variables whenever necessary.

5. Neglecting Variable Scoping Rules

Understanding variable scoping rules in relation to different storage classes is crucial. Neglecting these rules can lead to name conflicts, resulting in compilation errors or unexpected program behavior. Always pay attention to the scope of your variables and avoid naming conflicts.

6. Improper Use of External Storage Class

When using external storage class, be cautious about the potential for unintentional global namespace pollution. Improper use of external variables can make it difficult to track and manage variable dependencies. Ensure that external variables are only used when necessary and properly documented.

7. Overusing Register Storage Class

While register storage class can enhance variable access speed, overusing it can have negligible or even negative effects on performance. The compiler may choose to ignore the register keyword or allocate the variable in memory if an appropriate register is not available. Use register storage class judiciously and selectively for optimal performance.

Avoiding these common mistakes and pitfalls related to storage classes will help you write clean, efficient, and error-free code in your C programming projects.

Conclusion

In conclusion, storage classes in C play a crucial role in variable management, allowing programmers to control the scope, lifetime, and visibility of variables within a program. By understanding the different storage classes available, programmers can optimize memory usage and improve program efficiency.

Throughout this article, we discussed the various storage classes in C, including automatic, register, static, external, and thread-local storage classes. Each class has its own unique characteristics and use cases, providing flexibility and customization in variable declaration.

Key takeaways from this discussion include the importance of choosing the appropriate storage class for your variables based on their scope, lifetime, and visibility requirements. By utilizing the right storage class, you can ensure efficient memory usage and avoid potential errors and pitfalls related to variable management.

Overall, storage classes are a fundamental concept in the C programming language that every programmer should be familiar with. They provide a powerful mechanism for controlling variables in a program, leading to more efficient and maintainable code. By mastering storage classes, programmers can effectively manage variables and optimize their C programs for performance.

FAQ

What are storage classes in C programming?

Storage classes in C programming define the scope, lifetime, and visibility of variables. They determine how variables are stored in memory and accessed during program execution.

What is the automatic storage class?

The automatic storage class is the default storage class for local variables in C. Variables with automatic storage class are created when a function is called and destroyed when the function ends.

What is the register storage class?

The register storage class allows variables to be stored in CPU registers for faster access. However, the use of this storage class is limited, as not all variables can be stored in registers.

What is the static storage class?

The static storage class allows variables to retain their value across different function calls. Static variables are initialized only once and persist throughout the program’s execution.

What is the external storage class?

The external storage class enables variables to be shared across multiple source files in a C program. External variables have global scope and can be accessed by any function in the program.

What is the thread-local storage class?

The thread-local storage class allows each thread to have its own copy of a variable. Thread-local variables are useful in multi-threaded programming, allowing each thread to maintain its own state.

How do storage classes affect variable scope?

Storage classes determine the visibility and accessibility of variables within a program. Different storage classes have different scopes, such as block scope or file scope, which define where the variable can be accessed.

How do storage classes affect variable lifetime?

Storage classes influence the lifespan of variables in a program. Variables with automatic storage class have a lifetime limited to the function they are defined in, while static variables persist throughout the program’s execution.

How does the storage class affect variable visibility?

The storage class determines the visibility of variables in different parts of a program. Variables with external storage class can be seen by any function in the program, while variables with block scope are only visible within their block.

What are some best practices for using storage classes?

To use storage classes effectively, it is recommended to follow best practices such as declaring variables with the appropriate storage class, limiting the use of global variables, and using static variables for shared data between functions.

What are some common mistakes and pitfalls related to storage classes?

Common mistakes and pitfalls related to storage classes include using uninitialized variables, relying too heavily on global variables, and mistakenly assuming the visibility of variables in different scopes.

In summary, what are the key features of storage classes in C?

Storage classes in C determine the scope, lifetime, and visibility of variables. They include the automatic, register, static, external, and thread-local storage classes, each with its own characteristics and usage scenarios.

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Deepak Vishwakarma

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