55 New Agile Scrum Interview Question

Table of Contents

Introduction

Agile and Scrum methodologies have revolutionized project management, providing organizations with a flexible and iterative approach to delivering value. Agile emphasizes adaptability, collaboration, and responding to change, while Scrum provides a framework for effective team collaboration and project execution. By adopting Agile and Scrum, companies can streamline their processes, enhance customer satisfaction, and achieve faster time-to-market. Agile and Scrum methodologies are not limited to software development but can be applied to various industries. With their focus on continuous improvement and delivering customer value, Agile and Scrum empower teams to embrace change and achieve project success.

Basic Questions

1. What is Agile?

Agile is an iterative and incremental approach to project management and software development. It emphasizes collaboration, flexibility, and continuous improvement. Unlike traditional waterfall methodologies, Agile promotes adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and rapid and flexible response to change.

2. State the principles of Agile.

Agile is based on the following principles:

  1. Customer satisfaction through continuous delivery of valuable software.
  2. Embracing changing requirements, even in late development stages.
  3. Delivering working software frequently, with a preference for shorter timescales.
  4. Collaborative approach between cross-functional teams and stakeholders.
  5. Building projects around motivated individuals and giving them the environment and support they need.
  6. Face-to-face communication as the most effective form of conveying information.
  7. Measuring progress primarily through working software.
  8. Maintaining a sustainable pace for development teams.
  9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design.
  10. Simplicity—the art of maximizing the amount of work not done—is essential.

3. What are the benefits provided by Agile?

Agile methodologies offer several benefits, including:

  1. Improved customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
  2. Increased flexibility and adaptability to changing requirements.
  3. Enhanced collaboration and communication between team members and stakeholders.
  4. Faster time-to-market and shorter feedback loops.
  5. Better quality control through continuous testing and integration.
  6. Higher transparency and visibility into project progress.
  7. Increased team morale and motivation through self-organization and empowerment.
  8. Reduced risks through incremental development and early identification of issues.
  9. Improved stakeholder engagement and alignment with business objectives.
  10. Higher return on investment (ROI) by delivering high-value features early.

4. What is Scrum?

Scrum is an Agile framework for managing and controlling complex projects. It provides a set of guidelines, roles, artifacts, and ceremonies to enable effective collaboration and iterative development. Scrum focuses on delivering value in short iterations called sprints, typically lasting two to four weeks.

5. Define Agile vs Scrum?

While Agile is a broader umbrella term for various iterative methodologies, Scrum is a specific Agile framework. Agile encompasses different methodologies such as Kanban, Lean, and Extreme Programming (XP), while Scrum is one of the most widely adopted frameworks within the Agile landscape.

6. What are the name the different types of Agile Methodology?

The different types of Agile methodologies include:

  1. Scrum: A widely used Agile framework that emphasizes iterative development and cross-functional teams.
  2. Kanban: A method that focuses on visualizing work on a Kanban board and limiting work in progress (WIP) to improve flow and delivery.
  3. Extreme Programming (XP): A software development methodology that emphasizes continuous feedback, continuous integration, and customer involvement.
  4. Lean: A methodology derived from the Toyota Production System that aims to eliminate waste and optimize value delivery.
  5. Crystal: A family of Agile methodologies that adapts to different project characteristics and team sizes.
  6. Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM): An Agile project delivery framework that emphasizes active user involvement, iterative development, and frequent delivery.
  7. Feature-Driven Development (FDD): An Agile approach that focuses on feature modeling, iterative development, and frequent progress reporting.
  8. Adaptive Software Development (ASD): An Agile method that emphasizes collaboration, self-organizing teams, and evolutionary development.
  9. Rapid Application Development (RAD): A methodology that emphasizes rapid prototyping, iterative development, and involvement of stakeholders.
  10. Agile Unified Process (AUP): A simplified version of the Rational Unified Process (RUP) that applies Agile principles and practices.
  11. Scrumban: A hybrid approach that combines elements of Scrum and Kanban to optimize workflow and flexibility.
  12. Nexus: A scaling framework for Scrum that enables multiple Scrum teams to work together on a single product.
  13. Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe): A framework for scaling Agile practices across large organizations, promoting alignment, collaboration, and value delivery.
  14. Disciplined Agile (DA): A toolkit that provides a pragmatic approach to Agile and Lean methodologies, allowing teams to tailor their processes to specific contexts.

7. What is the purpose of a sprint in Scrum?

The purpose of a sprint in Scrum is to create a time-boxed iteration during which the development team works to deliver a potentially shippable increment of the product. Sprints provide a predictable cadence for development, allowing for continuous feedback and adaptation. They promote focus, collaboration, and transparency, enabling the team to deliver value in short, manageable cycles.

8. Explain Agile Testing?

Agile testing is an approach to software testing that aligns with Agile principles and methodologies. It emphasizes early and continuous testing throughout the development lifecycle, promoting collaboration between testers, developers, and stakeholders. Agile testing focuses on quick feedback, test automation, and adapting test strategies to accommodate changing requirements. It aims to ensure the quality of the software being developed while maintaining the flexibility and speed of Agile development.

9. How do you handle changes or new requirements in the middle of a sprint?

When facing changes or new requirements in the middle of a sprint, the Scrum team should assess the impact on the sprint goal and discuss them in the sprint retrospective. If the changes are deemed necessary, the Product Owner can add them to the product backlog for future sprints. However, it’s generally advisable to avoid introducing major changes during a sprint to maintain focus and maximize the chances of meeting the sprint goal.

10. What is the difference between the Product Backlog and the Sprint Backlog?

The Product Backlog is an ordered list of all the desired features, enhancements, and bug fixes for a product. It represents the overall roadmap and future work to be done. In contrast, the Sprint Backlog is a subset of the Product Backlog selected for a specific sprint. It contains the user stories and tasks that the development team commits to completing during the sprint.

11. How do you estimate work in Agile and Scrum?

In Agile and Scrum, work is estimated using techniques like story points or ideal hours. Story points measure the relative effort required to complete a user story, considering factors like complexity, effort, and uncertainty. The team assigns story points to each user story during backlog refinement or sprint planning. Ideal hours, on the other hand, provide a more granular estimation by estimating the number of hours needed to complete a task or user story.

12. What is the Definition of Done (DoD) in Scrum?

The Definition of Done (DoD) is a set of criteria that defines when a product increment is considered complete and potentially shippable. It serves as a shared understanding between the Scrum team and stakeholders. The DoD typically includes aspects such as code being reviewed, unit tests passing, functional tests passing, documentation being updated, and acceptance criteria met. It ensures that each increment of the product meets the required quality standards.

13. What is the ideal duration for a sprint?

The ideal duration for a sprint is typically recommended to be between one to four weeks. The specific duration depends on factors like team size, complexity of work, and the organization’s preferences. Shorter sprints enable more frequent feedback and adaptability but may require more coordination. Longer sprints allow for more substantial work but can delay feedback and adaptability. The team should determine the sprint duration that works best for their specific context.

14. What are the key benefits of using Agile methodologies?

The key benefits of using Agile methodologies include:

  • Increased flexibility and adaptability to changing requirements.
  • Faster delivery of valuable software increments.
  • Improved collaboration and communication among team members and stakeholders.
  • Enhanced transparency and visibility into project progress.
  • Higher quality through continuous testing and integration.
  • Increased customer satisfaction through early and frequent product releases.
  • Better risk management through iterative development and early issue identification.
  • Improved team morale and motivation through self-organization and empowerment.
  • Higher ROI by delivering high-value features early and continuously improving.

15. What is the purpose of the Daily Stand-up meeting?

The purpose of the Daily Stand-up meeting, also known as the Daily Scrum, is to provide a short, focused session where the development team synchronizes their activities. It typically takes place at the same time and place each day. The team members share what they accomplished since the last meeting, what they plan to do next, and any obstacles they are facing. The Daily Stand-up promotes transparency, alignment, and quick problem-solving, ensuring everyone is aware of the team’s progress and potential challenges.

16. What is the role of velocity in Agile and Scrum?

Velocity is a metric used in Agile and Scrum to measure the amount of work a team can accomplish within a sprint. It represents the average number of story points or work units completed by the team in each iteration. Velocity helps the team forecast how much work they can undertake in future sprints, aiding in release planning and project predictability. It serves as a baseline for the team to evaluate their productivity, capacity, and improvement over time.

17. How do you handle changes or new requirements in the middle of a sprint?

When changes or new requirements emerge in the middle of a sprint, the Scrum team should evaluate their impact on the sprint goal and the current sprint backlog. If the changes are deemed necessary, the Product Owner and the team can discuss and collaborate to determine the best course of action. They may choose to add the new requirements to the product backlog for future sprints or replan the current sprint if it’s feasible without jeopardizing the sprint goal. It’s important to maintain open communication and ensure that any changes align with the overall project objectives.

18. What is Product Backlog Refinement?

Product Backlog Refinement, also known as backlog grooming, is the ongoing process in Scrum where the Product Owner and the Development Team collaborate to refine and prioritize the items in the product backlog. This activity involves adding details, estimates, and clarifications to user stories, breaking down large items into smaller ones, and reordering the backlog based on changing priorities and emerging insights. Product Backlog Refinement helps ensure that the backlog items are well-understood, properly estimated, and ready for selection in upcoming sprints.

19. What are User Stories?

User Stories are concise, customer-centric descriptions of desired product functionality or features. They capture the “who,” “what,” and “why” of a particular user need or requirement. User Stories are typically written in a simple, non-technical language that is understandable to all stakeholders. They follow the format of “As a [role], I want [goal/desire] so that [benefit/value].” User Stories help the development team and stakeholders understand and prioritize the needs of users, guiding the iterative development process and facilitating effective communication and collaboration.

20. What is Sprint Planning?

Sprint Planning is a Scrum ceremony where the Product Owner and the Development Team collaborate to define the sprint goal and select user stories from the product backlog for the upcoming sprint. The team discusses the selected user stories, breaks them down into smaller tasks, estimates effort, and creates a sprint backlog. Sprint Planning sets the direction and plan for the sprint, ensuring a shared understanding and commitment towards achieving the sprint goal.

Intermediate Questions

1. How is Agile different from other software delivery approaches?

Agile differs from traditional software delivery approaches, such as Waterfall, in several ways:

  • Iterative and Incremental: Agile embraces an iterative and incremental approach, delivering working software in short cycles, while traditional approaches often follow a linear and sequential process.
  • Flexibility and Adaptability: Agile allows for flexibility and adaptability to changing requirements, enabling the team to respond quickly to customer feedback and market dynamics, while traditional approaches prioritize upfront planning and documentation.
  • Customer Collaboration: Agile emphasizes active customer collaboration throughout the development process, ensuring continuous feedback and alignment with customer needs, whereas traditional approaches often involve limited customer involvement until the final stages.
  • Self-Organizing Teams: Agile encourages self-organizing, cross-functional teams that collaborate and make decisions collectively, promoting autonomy and shared ownership, while traditional approaches often have a hierarchical command structure.
  • Continuous Improvement: Agile promotes continuous improvement through regular retrospectives and feedback loops, enabling the team to reflect and adjust their practices, whereas traditional approaches may have limited mechanisms for continuous improvement.
  • Early Value Delivery: Agile aims to deliver value early and frequently, allowing for early market validation and reducing the time to market, whereas traditional approaches may delay value delivery until the end of the project.

2. Explain what Burn-Up and Burn-Down charts are.

Burn-Up and Burn-Down charts are visual representations used in Agile project management to track progress over time:

  • Burn-Up Chart: A burn-up chart displays the cumulative work completed over time. It shows the total amount of work (usually measured in story points or effort) on the vertical axis and the sprint iterations or time on the horizontal axis. The chart’s line indicates the planned work, while the actual work completed is plotted on the graph. The chart helps visualize the progress toward completing the planned work and whether the team is on track to meet the project goals.
  • Burn-Down Chart: A burn-down chart tracks the remaining work over time. It shows the amount of work remaining (vertical axis) versus time or sprint iterations (horizontal axis). The chart’s line represents the ideal progress, showing how the work should decrease over time. The actual remaining work is plotted on the graph. The chart allows the team to monitor their progress, identify deviations from the ideal trend, and make necessary adjustments to meet the sprint or project goals.

3. How does Scrum differ from other Agile methodologies?

Scrum is a specific Agile framework that follows a set of predefined roles, ceremonies, and artifacts. It focuses on iterative and incremental development, with fixed-length sprints and a strong emphasis on empirical process control. Scrum provides clear roles (Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Development Team) and specific ceremonies (sprint planning, daily stand-ups, etc.) to guide the team. Other Agile methodologies, such as Kanban or Extreme Programming (XP), may have different practices, roles, or principles, but they share the underlying Agile values and principles of iterative development, customer collaboration, and responsiveness to change.

4. How does the Development Team collaborate in Scrum?

The Development Team in Scrum collaborates through active and continuous communication. They work together to plan, design, develop, test, and deliver product increments. Collaboration occurs during various Scrum ceremonies, such as sprint planning, daily stand-up meetings, sprint reviews, and sprint retrospectives. The team members share knowledge, help each other, and collectively take ownership of delivering the sprint goal. Collaboration fosters a cross-functional, self-organizing environment where the team collectively takes responsibility for the quality and success of the product.

5. How do you prioritize user stories in the Product Backlog?

User stories in the Product Backlog are typically prioritized based on several factors, including business value, customer impact, dependencies, and risks. The Product Owner collaborates with stakeholders to understand their needs and priorities. They may use techniques like MoSCoW prioritization, value-based prioritization, or other prioritization frameworks to rank user stories. The highest-priority user stories are placed at the top of the Product Backlog, ensuring that the team focuses on delivering the most valuable functionality first.

6. What are the different burndown charts used in Scrum?

In Scrum, there are two commonly used types of burndown charts:

  • Sprint Burndown Chart: It tracks the remaining work (usually in story points or hours) over the duration of a sprint. It helps the team visualize their progress and whether they are on track to complete the committed work by the end of the sprint.
  • Release Burndown Chart: It illustrates the remaining work (typically in story points or backlog items) across multiple sprints or iterations. It shows the progress towards completing the overall release or project goal, helping stakeholders monitor the team’s productivity and the projected timeline for completion.

7. What are the common challenges faced when transitioning to Agile?

Common challenges when transitioning to Agile include resistance to change, cultural shifts, lack of Agile knowledge or training, adapting existing processes and roles, managing stakeholder expectations, and integrating Agile with other parts of the organization. Other challenges may include maintaining productivity during the transition, ensuring effective communication and collaboration, and aligning Agile principles with the organization’s goals and values.

8. What is a user story in Agile, and how is it different from a requirement?

In Agile, a user story is a short, simple, and customer-centric description of a desired product feature or functionality. It captures the “who,” “what,” and “why” of a user need or requirement. User stories are written from the perspective of an end user or stakeholder and focus on the value delivered.

In contrast, a requirement is a more detailed specification or documentation that outlines the functionality or behavior expected from the system. Requirements tend to be more formal and comprehensive, often including technical details, acceptance criteria, and design specifications.

User stories in Agile are intended to foster collaboration, flexibility, and customer-centricity, allowing for iterative development and delivering value in a user-centered manner. Requirements, on the other hand, are often associated with more traditional software development approaches and may be more rigid and prescriptive.

9. How does a Product Owner contribute to the Scrum team?

The Product Owner plays a crucial role in the Scrum team. They are responsible for maximizing the value of the product and managing the product backlog. The Product Owner collaborates with stakeholders to understand their needs, prioritize features, and define the product vision. They work closely with the Development Team to clarify user stories, provide guidance, and ensure the development aligns with the customer’s requirements. The Product Owner also participates in sprint planning, sprint reviews, and backlog refinement, providing clarity and direction to the team.

10. How does Agile promote customer collaboration?

Agile promotes customer collaboration through various practices and principles. It emphasizes the involvement of customers and stakeholders throughout the development process. Agile teams engage customers in regular feedback cycles, including sprint reviews and demos, to gather their input, validate product increments, and incorporate their suggestions. Agile also encourages close collaboration between the Product Owner and customers to ensure their needs are understood and prioritized. By maintaining open communication channels, Agile fosters a collaborative environment where customers actively participate in shaping the product and contribute to its success.

11. How does Scrum help manage risks in a project?

Scrum helps manage risks in a project by providing a transparent and iterative approach. Through short sprint cycles, Scrum allows for frequent inspection and adaptation. The team identifies risks early, and the Product Owner and stakeholders can reprioritize user stories or adjust the project’s direction based on changing circumstances. The daily stand-up meetings facilitate communication and highlight any impediments or potential risks. Additionally, the sprint review and retrospective ceremonies provide opportunities to reflect on risks encountered and implement mitigation strategies.

12. How does Scrum enable continuous improvement?

Scrum enables continuous improvement through its iterative and feedback-driven approach. The sprint retrospective is a dedicated ceremony where the Scrum team reflects on their processes, collaboration, and outcomes. They identify areas for improvement, discuss potential changes, and create action items to enhance their practices in the next sprint. By regularly reflecting on their performance and making incremental adjustments, Scrum teams continuously improve their effectiveness, productivity, and product quality.

13. What is the Agile Manifesto?

The Agile Manifesto is a foundational document that outlines the values and principles of Agile software development. It was created in 2001 by a group of software professionals who gathered to discuss and distill their experiences and insights into a set of guiding principles. The Agile Manifesto emphasizes individuals and interactions over processes and tools, working software over comprehensive documentation, customer collaboration over contract negotiation, and responding to change over following a plan. It serves as a reference point for Agile methodologies, guiding teams in delivering customer value through iterative and collaborative approaches.

14. What is Acceptance Criteria?

Acceptance Criteria are specific conditions or requirements that a product or feature must meet to be considered complete and satisfactory by the stakeholders. They are typically defined collaboratively by the Product Owner, development team, and other relevant stakeholders. Acceptance Criteria help ensure a shared understanding of what constitutes a successful implementation of a user story or feature. They provide clear guidelines for testing and validation, helping the team determine when a user story is done and meets the customer’s expectations.

15. Explain the difference between Extreme Programming and Scrum?

Extreme Programming (XP) and Scrum are both Agile methodologies but differ in their approach and focus:

  • XP places a strong emphasis on engineering practices such as test-driven development, pair programming, continuous integration, and frequent refactoring. It promotes a high level of collaboration and code quality, aiming to deliver high-quality software increments.
  • Scrum, on the other hand, focuses on project management and collaboration. It provides a framework with defined roles, ceremonies, and artifacts. Scrum emphasizes iterative development, regular feedback, and continuous improvement through retrospectives.

16. What is the Scrum Master’s role in a project?

The Scrum Master is a key role in a Scrum project. They serve as a servant-leader, facilitating the adoption of Scrum practices and removing impediments that hinder the team’s progress. The Scrum Master ensures that the Scrum framework is followed, coaches the team on Agile principles, and fosters a collaborative and self-organizing environment. They facilitate Scrum ceremonies, promote effective communication, and shield the team from external distractions. The Scrum Master also helps in resolving conflicts, fostering continuous improvement, and enabling the team’s productivity and success.

17. What is Empirical Process Control in Scrum?

Empirical Process Control is a fundamental principle of Scrum. It is based on the three pillars of transparency, inspection, and adaptation. In Scrum, the team continuously inspects the product, the process, and the progress during the sprint. They make this information transparent to stakeholders, enabling visibility and shared understanding.

Through inspection, the team gathers feedback and metrics to assess their performance. Based on this inspection, they adapt their plans, processes, and backlog, making necessary adjustments to optimize the value and quality of the product. Empirical Process Control allows for continuous learning, adaptation, and improvement throughout the project.

18. What is Incremental and Iterative Development?

Incremental and iterative development are two approaches used in Agile methodologies:

  • Incremental Development: In incremental development, a project is divided into multiple increments or releases. Each increment delivers a portion of the final product functionality. The increments are built and delivered sequentially, allowing for early value delivery and feedback from stakeholders.
  • Iterative Development: Iterative development involves the repetitive cycle of planning, executing, and evaluating. The project is divided into iterations or sprints, with each iteration delivering a working increment of the product. The team gathers feedback from stakeholders at the end of each iteration and uses it to refine and improve subsequent iterations.

19. What are different project management tools that are mostly used in Agile?

Some commonly used project management tools in Agile include:

  • Jira: Jira is a popular tool used for project management, issue tracking, and agile team collaboration. It provides features for managing backlogs, creating user stories, tracking tasks, and visualizing progress.
  • Trello: Trello is a simple and visual project management tool that uses boards, lists, and cards to manage tasks and workflows. It is often used for Kanban-style project management and offers easy collaboration features.
  • Azure DevOps (formerly known as Visual Studio Team Services): Azure DevOps is a comprehensive toolset that supports the entire software development lifecycle. It provides features for managing backlogs, version control, continuous integration, and deployment.
  • Rally (now part of Broadcom): Rally is an enterprise-level Agile project management platform that offers features for backlog management, release planning, sprint tracking, and reporting.

20. Explain the terms User story, Epic, and Tasks in Scrum?

  • User Story: A user story is a short, simple, and customer-centric description of a desired product feature or functionality. It captures the “who,” “what,” and “why” of a user need or requirement. User stories are written from the perspective of an end user or stakeholder and serve as a unit of work for the development team.
  • Epic: An epic is a large body of work that cannot be easily completed within a single sprint. It represents a broader feature or a collection of related user stories. Epics are typically broken down into smaller, more manageable user stories during backlog refinement or sprint planning.
  • Tasks: Tasks are specific activities or actions required to complete a user story. They represent the work that needs to be done to deliver the functionality described in the user story. Tasks are often estimated, assigned to team members, and tracked during the sprint.

21. Explain TimeBoxing in Scrum.

TimeBoxing is a technique used in Scrum to define fixed time frames for activities or events. In Scrum, the most common application of TimeBoxing is within the sprint. Each sprint has a fixed duration, typically ranging from one to four weeks. The duration remains constant throughout the project, and the team commits to delivering a potentially shippable product increment within that time frame. TimeBoxing helps create a predictable cadence and provides a sense of urgency and focus to meet the sprint goals.

22. Explain the term “story point” in Scrum.

Story points are a relative estimation technique used in Scrum to estimate the effort required to implement a user story. Story points measure the size or complexity of a user story rather than the actual time it will take to complete it. The team assigns story points to each user story during backlog refinement or sprint planning based on their understanding of the work involved. Story points help the team forecast their capacity and determine how many user stories they can take on in a sprint.

23. Explain the term “impediments” in Scrum.

Impediments, in the context of Scrum, refer to any obstacles, issues, or barriers that hinder the progress or performance of the development team. These can be external factors, such as resource constraints, dependencies, or technical challenges, as well as internal issues, such as communication problems or skill gaps. The Scrum Master plays a crucial role in identifying and removing impediments to enable the team to work efficiently and deliver value during the sprint.

24.What is MVP?

MVP stands for Minimum Viable Product. It is an iterative product development strategy in which a basic version of a product is developed with the minimum features required to satisfy early adopters and provide value to customers. The MVP allows the product to be released quickly and tested in the market, gathering user feedback and validating assumptions. It helps reduce time-to-market, manage risks, and provides a foundation for further iterations and enhancements based on customer feedback and evolving requirements.

Advanced Questions

1. What is a Sprint Retrospective?

A Sprint Retrospective is a crucial event in Agile methodology that occurs at the end of each sprint or iteration. It provides an opportunity for the Agile team to reflect on the recently completed sprint and identify areas for improvement. During the retrospective, team members discuss what went well, what could have been done better, and any potential actions to enhance future sprints. The Sprint Retrospective promotes a culture of continuous learning, collaboration, and self-improvement within the team.

2. Why Continuous Integration is important for Agile?

Continuous Integration (CI) is a vital practice in Agile development. It involves regularly integrating code changes from multiple team members into a shared repository, followed by automated building and testing processes. CI is important for Agile for several reasons. Firstly, it promotes collaboration and early detection of integration issues. By integrating code frequently, teams can identify and resolve conflicts or errors before they escalate. Secondly, CI enables teams to deliver working software more frequently, as each code change is automatically built and tested. This leads to faster feedback loops, reduced risks, and improved software quality. Continuous Integration also supports other Agile practices like Continuous Delivery and ensures that the software remains in a releasable state at all times.

3. Explain what is Spike and Zero Sprint in Agile? What is the purpose of it?

In Agile development, a Spike refers to a time-boxed activity aimed at reducing uncertainty and gaining knowledge about a specific technical or design problem. It is not focused on delivering a shippable increment but rather on exploring potential solutions or understanding a particular domain. Spikes are typically used when there is a need to investigate a new technology, evaluate different approaches, or gather information before committing to a specific solution. The purpose of a Spike is to gather information, evaluate options, and make informed decisions, thus reducing risks and improving the team’s understanding of the problem.

A Zero Sprint, on the other hand, is a short iteration that occurs before the first official sprint in an Agile project. Its purpose is to set up the project environment, establish initial requirements, and address any logistical or technical challenges. The Zero Sprint allows the team to prepare the groundwork for the project, align stakeholders’ expectations, and ensure that the necessary infrastructure and processes are in place before full-scale development begins.

4. Mention what are the Agile quality strategies?

Agile teams prioritize quality throughout the software development lifecycle. They employ various strategies to achieve this goal. Some of the Agile quality strategies include:

  1. Test-Driven Development (TDD): This approach involves writing automated tests before writing the actual code. TDD ensures that the code meets the specified requirements and provides a safety net for making changes or refactoring.
  2. Behavior-Driven Development (BDD): BDD focuses on defining and verifying behavior through collaboration between developers, testers, and business stakeholders. It uses a shared language (Gherkin syntax) to describe requirements in the form of executable scenarios.
  3. Continuous Testing: Continuous Testing involves automating the execution of tests throughout the development process. It ensures that any changes or additions to the codebase do not introduce regressions or break existing functionality.
  4. Continuous Delivery: Continuous Delivery aims to deliver working software frequently and reliably by automating the deployment process. It ensures that the software is always in a releasable state, allowing teams to release new features or bug fixes quickly.

5. What do you mean by Scrum of Scrums (SoS)?

Scrum of Scrums (SoS) is a technique used to coordinate multiple Agile teams working on a large-scale project. In the Scrum of Scrums, representatives from each team meet regularly to share updates, discuss dependencies, and resolve any cross-team issues. The purpose of the Scrum of Scrums is to ensure alignment, facilitate collaboration, and enable efficient progress across the entire Agile initiative. It provides a forum for teams to synchronize their efforts, share knowledge, and address any obstacles that may affect the project’s success.

6. What are the main artifacts of Scrum Framework?

The Scrum framework defines several key artifacts that provide transparency and support the development process. These artifacts include:

  1. Product Backlog: The Product Backlog is a prioritized list of user stories, features, or requirements that define the product’s scope. It serves as the single source of truth for the team and provides visibility into what needs to be developed.
  2. Sprint Backlog: The Sprint Backlog is a subset of items from the Product Backlog that the team commits to delivering during a sprint. It contains the tasks necessary to implement the selected user stories and acts as a plan for the sprint.
  3. Increment: The Increment represents the sum of all the completed and potentially releasable user stories or features at the end of a sprint. It should be a usable and potentially shippable piece of the product.
  4. Burndown Chart: The Burndown Chart is a visual representation of the remaining work in a sprint or release. It helps the team track progress and forecast whether they will complete the committed work within the allocated time.

7. What are standard or common metrics for Agile? Explain.

Agile projects rely on metrics to measure progress, identify bottlenecks, and assess team performance. Some standard or common metrics for Agile include:

  1. Velocity: Velocity measures the amount of work a team can complete within a sprint. It provides a basis for estimating future sprints and helps with capacity planning.
  2. Burnup Chart: A Burnup Chart visually represents completed work versus the total scope of a project. It provides stakeholders with a clear view of progress and helps manage expectations.
  3. Lead Time: Lead Time measures the time it takes to deliver a user story or feature from the moment it enters the development process until it is completed and ready for release. It helps identify process inefficiencies and enables teams to improve their delivery time.
  4. Cycle Time: Cycle Time measures the time it takes to complete one iteration of a specific task or user story. It focuses on the time spent actively working on the task and helps identify bottlenecks or areas for improvement.
  5. Defect Density: Defect Density calculates the number of defects or bugs found in a given piece of software. It helps track the quality of the product and provides feedback on the effectiveness of testing and development practices.

8. What is a Sprint Planning Meeting, Sprint Review Meeting, and Sprint Retrospective Meeting?

The Sprint Planning Meeting, Sprint Review Meeting, and Sprint Retrospective Meeting are key events within the Scrum framework.

  1. Sprint Planning Meeting: The Sprint Planning Meeting occurs at the beginning of each sprint. The team collaborates to determine which user stories or tasks they will commit to delivering during the sprint. They discuss the scope, estimate effort, and create a plan for achieving the sprint goal.
  2. Sprint Review Meeting: The Sprint Review Meeting takes place at the end of the sprint. The team showcases the completed work to stakeholders, gathers feedback, and reviews the Increment. It is an opportunity to demonstrate the value delivered and adjust the Product Backlog based on stakeholder input.
  3. Sprint Retrospective Meeting: The Sprint Retrospective Meeting happens after the Sprint Review. The team reflects on the sprint and identifies what went well, what could be improved, and potential action items. The retrospective fosters continuous learning and helps the team refine their processes for the next sprint.

9. What good qualities should an Agile Tester have?

An Agile Tester plays a critical role in the Agile team, contributing to the quality of the software being developed. Some good qualities an Agile Tester should have include:

  1. Strong Testing Skills: An Agile Tester should possess a solid understanding of various testing techniques, including manual and automated testing. They should be able to design effective test cases, execute tests, and identify and report defects.
  2. Collaboration and Communication: Agile Testers need to work closely with developers, product owners, and other team members. They should have excellent communication skills to effectively discuss requirements, provide feedback, and contribute to the team’s shared understanding.
  3. Adaptability and Flexibility: Agile projects often require testers to adapt to changing requirements and priorities. Agile Testers should be able to handle changing scope, reprioritize their work, and embrace an iterative and incremental approach.
  4. Analytical and Problem-Solving Abilities: Agile Testers need to think critically and identify potential risks or issues in the software. They should have strong analytical skills to troubleshoot problems, investigate root causes, and propose solutions.
  5. Continuous Learning: Agile Testers should have a growth mindset and a willingness to learn and explore new tools, technologies, and testing methodologies. They should stay updated with industry trends and continuously improve their testing skills.

10. What do you mean by refactoring?

Refactoring refers to the process of improving the structure and design of existing code without changing its external behavior. It involves making modifications to the codebase to enhance readability, maintainability, and performance. Refactoring helps eliminate code duplication, improve code organization, and reduce technical debt. By refactoring regularly, Agile teams can keep their codebase clean, make it easier to understand and modify, and support evolving requirements. Refactoring is an essential practice in Agile development as it ensures the long-term health and maintainability of the software.

11. What is the “Planning Poker” technique?

Planning Poker is a consensus-based technique used by Agile teams to estimate the effort required for user stories or tasks. It is a gamified approach that involves team members using a deck of cards with different values to express their estimates. The values on the cards typically represent relative effort or complexity, such as points or Fibonacci numbers. During a Planning Poker session, the team discusses the requirements and constraints of a user story and individually selects a card to represent their estimate. The cards are revealed simultaneously, and any significant differences in estimates are discussed to gain a shared understanding. This technique encourages collaboration, reduces bias, and allows the team to converge on a consensus estimate for each user story.

12. What are the benefits of a Burn Up Chart?

A Burn Up Chart is a graphical representation of completed work (y-axis) versus the total scope (x-axis) of a project or release. It provides several benefits in Agile project management:

  1. Visual Progress Tracking: The Burn Up Chart provides a visual representation of the work completed over time. It allows stakeholders to track progress, understand the project’s trajectory, and identify any deviations from the initial plan.
  2. Transparency and Communication: The Burn Up Chart promotes transparency by clearly showing the completed work and the remaining scope. It facilitates effective communication between the development team, product owner, and other stakeholders, enabling them to make informed decisions.
  3. Forecasting and Planning: Based on the historical data displayed on the Burn Up Chart, the team can forecast the project’s completion date and make adjustments to the scope or resources if needed. It helps manage expectations and supports proactive planning.
  4. Early Identification of Risks and Issues: By comparing the actual progress with the expected trajectory, the Burn Up Chart can highlight any delays or issues early on. This allows the team to take corrective actions and mitigate risks before they impact the project’s success.
  5. Celebrating Milestones and Achievements: The Burn Up Chart visually showcases the work completed, providing a sense of achievement and motivation for the team. It helps celebrate milestones and progress towards the project’s goals.

MCQ Questions

1. What is Agile software development?

a) A sequential development process
b) A flexible and iterative approach to development
c) A documentation-heavy methodology
d) A predictive and plan-driven approach

Answer: b) A flexible and iterative approach to development

2. Which of the following is a core value of Agile?

a) Comprehensive documentation
b) Contract negotiation
c) Responding to change
d) Following a plan

Answer: c) Responding to change

3. What is the primary goal of Scrum?

a) Maximizing productivity
b) Delivering a high-quality product
c) Adhering to a strict schedule
d) Embracing change and continuous improvement

Answer: d) Embracing change and continuous improvement

4. Who is responsible for prioritizing and managing the product backlog in Scrum?

a) Scrum Master
b) Product Owner
c) Development Team
d) Stakeholders

Answer: b) Product Owner

5. What is a Sprint in Scrum?

a) A daily meeting
b) A project milestone
c) A timebox for product development
d) A retrospective event

Answer: c) A timebox for product development

6. What is the recommended duration for a Sprint in Scrum?

a) 1 week
b) 2 weeks
c) 4 weeks
d) It depends on the project

Answer: d) It depends on the project

7. What is the purpose of a Daily Scrum meeting?

a) To review and update the product backlog
b) To discuss and resolve impediments
c) To plan the work for the next sprint
d) To showcase the completed work to stakeholders

Answer: b) To discuss and resolve impediments

8. Which role is responsible for removing impediments and ensuring the Scrum framework is followed?

a) Product Owner
b) Development Team
c) Scrum Master
d) Stakeholders

Answer: c) Scrum Master

9. What is the main output of a Sprint Review meeting?

a) A plan for the next sprint
b) A completed increment of the product
c) A retrospective on the team’s performance
d) A prioritized product backlog

Answer: b) A completed increment of the product

10. What is the purpose of a Sprint Retrospective?

a) To review the progress of the current sprint
b) To plan and prioritize the product backlog
c) To celebrate the team’s achievements
d) To reflect on the team’s processes and identify areas for improvement

Answer: d) To reflect on the team’s processes and identify areas for improvement

11. What is a User Story in Agile?

a) A description of a user’s experience with the product
b) A list of technical requirements
c) A detailed specification document
d) A small piece of work that delivers value to the user

Answer: d) A small piece of work that delivers value to the user

12. What is the role of the Development Team in Scrum?

a) To manage the product backlog
b) To define the acceptance criteria for User Stories
c) To develop and deliver the product increment
d) To prioritize and manage the project schedule

Answer: c) To develop and deliver the product increment

13. What is the recommended size for a Scrum Development Team?

a) 3-5 members
b) 7-9 members
c) 10-15 members
d) Any size, as long as it can deliver the product increment

Answer: a) 3-5 members

14. Which Scrum artifact represents the list of all the work that needs to be done?

a) Sprint Backlog
b) Product Backlog
c) Burn Down Chart
d) Increment

Answer: b) Product Backlog

15. What is the purpose of the Sprint Burndown Chart?

a) To track the team’s velocity
b) To monitor the progress of the Sprint backlog
c) To estimate the effort required for User Stories
d) To track the team’s availability and capacity

Answer: b) To monitor the progress of the Sprint backlog

16. What is the main goal of Continuous Integration in Agile?

a) To ensure that all features are fully tested before release
b) To deliver working software at the end of each Sprint
c) To integrate code changes frequently and detect issues early
d) To align the development team’s work with the project schedule

Answer: c) To integrate code changes frequently and detect issues early

17. What does the term “Product Increment” refer to in Scrum?

a) The list of User Stories in the product backlog
b) The set of features planned for the next Sprint
c) The completed and potentially releasable product functionality
d) The overall project timeline and milestones

Answer: c) The completed and potentially releasable product functionality

18. What is the role of the Product Owner in Agile?

a) To manage the development team’s work
b) To provide technical guidance and support
c) To represent the stakeholders and prioritize the product backlog
d) To facilitate the Scrum events and ensure adherence to the framework

Answer: c) To represent the stakeholders and prioritize the product backlog

19. What is the purpose of a Sprint Planning meeting?

a) To assign tasks to individual team members
b) To define the acceptance criteria for User Stories
c) To estimate the effort required for each User Story
d) To plan the work to be done in the upcoming Sprint

Answer: d) To plan the work to be done in the upcoming Sprint

20. Which statement best describes the concept of “self-organizing teams” in Agile?

a) The team members decide who will be the Scrum Master
b) The team members manage their own work and make decisions collectively
c) The team members rotate roles and responsibilities within the Scrum framework
d) The team members report to the Product Owner and follow their directions

Answer: b) The team members manage their own work and make decisions collectively

21. What is the purpose of a Spike in Agile?

a) To estimate the effort required for a User Story
b) To explore a technical solution or gather information
c) To review and validate the completed work in a Sprint
d) To identify and resolve impediments that are affecting the team

Answer: b) To explore a technical solution or gather information

22. Which practice focuses on continuously improving the team’s processes and performance in Agile?

a) Sprint Retrospective
b) Daily Scrum
c) Sprint Review
d) Sprint Planning

Answer: a) Sprint Retrospective

23. What does the term “Definition of Done” represent in Scrum?

a) The completion criteria for a User Story or product increment
b) The set of features planned for the next Sprint
c) The overall timeline and milestones for the project
d) The acceptance criteria defined by the Product Owner

Answer: a) The completion criteria for a User Story or product increment

24. What is the purpose of a Scrum of Scrums (SoS) meeting?

a) To coordinate the work of multiple Scrum teams
b) To review and prioritize the product backlog
c) To facilitate communication between the Scrum Master and Product Owner
d) To discuss and resolve technical challenges in the development process

Answer: a) To coordinate the work of multiple Scrum teams

25. What are the main Agile quality strategies?

a) Test-driven development and continuous integration
b) Risk management and change control
c) Requirements documentation and traceability
d) User acceptance testing and defect tracking

Answer: a) Test-driven development and continuous integration

26. What is the role of the Scrum Master in Scrum?

a) To manage the project schedule and deliverables
b) To ensure the team follows the Scrum framework and remove impediments
c) To prioritize and manage the product backlog
d) To facilitate communication between the stakeholders and development team

Answer: b) To ensure the team follows the Scrum framework and remove impediments

27. What is the purpose of a Sprint Review meeting?

a) To plan the work for the next Sprint
b) To present the completed work to stakeholders and gather feedback
c) To review and prioritize the product backlog
d) To reflect on the team’s processes and identify areas for improvement

Answer: b) To present the completed work to stakeholders and gather feedback

28. What is the recommended time duration for a Daily Scrum meeting?

a) 15 minutes
b) 30 minutes
c) 1 hour
d) It depends on the size of the development team

Answer: a) 15 minutes

29. What is the role of stakeholders in Agile?

a) To define the project requirements and scope
b) To participate in the Scrum events and provide feedback
c) To manage the project schedule and budget
d) To perform the testing and quality assurance activities

Answer: b) To participate in the Scrum events and provide feedback

30. What is the purpose of a Sprint Retrospective meeting?

a) To present the completed work to stakeholders and gather feedback
b) To review the progress of the current Sprint and make adjustments
c) To reflect on the team’s processes and identify areas for improvement
d) To plan and prioritize the User Stories for the next Sprint

Answer: c) To reflect on the team’s processes and identify areas for improvement

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Deepak Vishwakarma

Founder

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